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BU / Social Science / SS 201 / What is the annexation of crimea?

What is the annexation of crimea?

What is the annexation of crimea?

Description

School: Boston University
Department: Social Science
Course: Revolutions in Russia and China
Professor: Grasso
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: history, Russia, China, Politics, BU, and Questrom
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide
Description: this is the matter you will need for the first mid-term.
Uploaded: 10/17/2017
13 Pages 35 Views 3 Unlocks
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Political​ ​Situation​ ​in​ ​Russia 


What is the annexation of crimea?



➔ French revolution- development of new ideas while napoleonic wars spread those ideas ➔ Political power given to the people- popular sovereignty in Russia there was an autocracy- wanted to create new constitutional monarchy by intelligentsia (the educated intellectual in Russia, highly politicized class, highly concerned w political change) ➔ On Alexander I’s death there was the Decembrist Revolt of 1825- to replace autocracy with constitutional monarchy- failed- put down by armed forces, goal not achieved ➔ However it had an impact was that it was the first real organized event that challenged the autocracy- this could be done, can challenge power of tsar

➔ Russia = backward compared to western Europe, problems were because it was backward according to intellectuals


How soviet communism is challenged ?



2​ ​Groups​ ​Who​ ​Wanted​ ​to​ ​Solve​ ​Russia’s​ ​Problems: 

1) Slavophiles 

➔ Loves eastern european and slavic culture and want to promote it, looked inward (look at our own traditions) and backward (into russian history) for solutions- romantic group. Reject the outside world and modern changes, stick to what we know

2)​ ​Westerners If you want to learn more check out What is the amortization of intangible assets?

➔ Looked to the west, outward and forward, changes are happening in the west, we need to catch up to modernize

➔ Alexander Herzen- added westerner, promotes western agenda but became disillusioned was exiled there and realized that these new organizations w promises didn't add up to anything, crass greedy exploitive capitalist system-not as successful and ugly- not as good as it looks


What happened in the great patriotic war?



➔ His model= peasant commune- rural gemeinschaft rooted in the people is the way to go ➔ Herzen- Populist vision

➔ Nikolai Chernyshevsky- Nihilists- more radical, extreme group in devotion to destruction and revolution (obsessed)

➔ Everything is rotten- social, political, religious, institution, everything is corrupt ➔ Revolution would come when people would get sick of how bad the state of society is, but usually revolution comes when things are growing but not at its best and people aren't as satisfied Don't forget about the age old question of What is the classic stallings fiber-tempered pottery?

➔ Focus on destroying society

➔ Leads to People’s Will- assassinated Alexander II- even tho he was tsar liberator and tried making some changes, they killed him, not enough

➔ Next Tsar- very conservative

Marxism 

➔ Increases after 1880’s

➔ Plekhanov= first major marxist leader who promotes it

➔ Argues orthodox version- russia need to go through the stages of marxism ➔ Marxism = materials dialectical philosophy (marx)

➔ Feudal ---> capital ---> communist revolution

➔ If Russia is going to have a communist revolution they’d have to wait for a long time ➔ 1903- split between Bolsheviks (Lenin) and Mensheviks (Martov) ➔ Bolsheviks = majority, Mensheviks = minority

➔ Martov- more orthodox, follows stages, willing to compromise with other groups proletariat will lead the way

➔ Lenin- own version of marxism, we need pitiless revolution, elitist view- elite group of revolutionaries, time for revolution is now Don't forget about the age old question of What is the trade wind inversion?

➔ SR= Socialist Revolutionaries, not marxist, agrarian rule social group= largest group ​ ​ ​ ​ ​The​ ​Peasants 

➔ When Nikolai comes back home he realizes his home and town was not as he imagined and romanticized it to be. Now that he has been exposed to what living in Moscow is like- seeing well dressed people, working indoors- he realizes how poor his family was and how hard the peasant life is.

➔ Cycles of poverty- people don’t have opportunity- sociological imagination- if i am poor bc i can’t keep a job bc of my own behavior- individual problem vs if i can't get a job bc there is a recession- not about me, something structural is going on We also discuss several other topics like What is oxymercuration?

➔ Guys getting drunk, they are poor- individual problems vs they suffer as men, labor unbearable, scanty harvest, rich didn’t care- angry at guys also looking at broader picture and how awful it is, almost no mobility

➔ Drunkenness, sexual violence, domestic abuse, racism - grim picture of poverty ➔ Hopelessness that is woven

➔ Marx- material condition of life (grinding poverty) and consciousness (no sense of social mobility, hopelessness) - when do people start to associate w each and recognize commonality? Do we see ourselves as people in our place doing our thing, or realize we are all being exploited and we’re barely surviving (peasants). Find what they have in common- class consciousness = = unhealthy society

➔ Peasants don't have class consciousness, haven't developed a sense of oh there's a way out of this, don’t do anything about it, level of peasants- lack of effectiveness of the great reforms- most done = liberation of serfs- lives were not necessarily better, peasants could not own land, so after liberation they thought they could be farmers by the govt giving them land, but what will they buy it w? Gvt buys land, peasants can have access through redemption payments- combined w taxes= inability to pay back, very stressful We also discuss several other topics like What can limit population?

➔ They were happier as serfs- modernity could cause a sense of freedom but also cause anomie, confusion, scare of unknown- sink or swim

➔ Serfdom- there was a sense of paternalism, part of a family- someone to watch out for you and protect you, not really free but a sense of being a part of a closed system ➔ Definition of freedom can vary

➔ If you have resources and opportunity- individualist society is great for you, otherwise not really

➔ Lack of adequate changes relative to the needs of people- lead to political movements hardcore violence, no room in autocratic dictatorial sate for any other kind of involvement therefore only thing left is violence We also discuss several other topics like Distinguish society from culture.

➔ Life sucks, deal w it and carry on, life is meant to be hard kind of attitude- Chekhov Articles 

Sergei​ ​Witte 

➔ Described US relationship to Russia as a colony

➔ We shouldn’t be treated like a colony and under the thumb of powerful western Europe ➔ Second industrial revolution in US- becoming more powerful economically ➔ Tariffs- protective tariffs- he is pro tariff- using them to build up a domestic industry,

getting rid of tariffs will cause more problems than it can solve- but could interrupt trade patterns, and they don’t have a good enough base to create an abundance of cheap goods which is why they need imports

➔ Promoting railroad building- can provide networks to move people and stuff, military tied to it as well, bringing country together, creates jobs- spur economic growth- Keynesian Effect

➔ View to modernize Russia’s economy through industrialization

Pobedonostsev 

➔ Against everything the westerner’s believe in

➔ Extremely conservative

➔ Power of media- could be negative, if you allow people to say and print what they want leads to damaging effect- sees this as a threat,

➔ Likes absolutism, with solid class system where people know their place ➔ Against public education- small elite of people who run everything and be in charge ➔ No sense of social mobility in his world view, and capitalism

Worker’s​ ​Petition 

➔ Asked for social (ex: free education for all), political (ex: equality before the law) and economical reform (ex: less working hours)

Revolution​ ​in​ ​Russia 

➔ 19th C- Revolutionary Era

➔ There was some economic and industrial development of Russia but w continued social, economic and political problems

➔ Intelligentsia called for more reforms however autocracy failed to control the political upheaval and the demands of the people in an adequate way- remained absolute monarchy- repressed the citizens

➔ When workers got their demands they were meant w gunfire- bloody sunday even tho they were trying to peacefully protest

➔ Tsar finally agreed to concede to some political changes in Russia w a series of reforms October Manifesto

➔ Duma- parliament or representative body- did not have too much power, still remained a hybrid gvt system, tsar had a lot of power

➔ 1917- series of 2 revolutions- factors converged like continued political and social upheaval and participation in the war

➔ Romanov Dynasty- overthrown

➔ Period of dual power- provisional government set up- officially in charge of governing Russia but alternate pole of power created Petrograd Soviet (workers council)- stronghold of far political left- communist and bolsheviks

➔ Bolshevik Seizure - consolidation of power by Lenin, at first shares power w the SR’s but then they take complete control, put in place one party state- mensheviks were willing to compromise to share power w other parties (democracy), lenin- not one in which various parties contested, but one where bolshevik party represented the will of the working class- dictatorship over the proletariat

➔ His message- peace, land and bread

➔ Lack of democratic institution, and red terror(period of repression of political enemies carried out by Cheka (secret police))- angered people

➔ Red- political left symbolized by red w socialism or communism

➔ Economic policy- nationalizing industries, gvt owns means of production on behalf of people

➔ War Communism- emergency economic policy

➔ Civil War- many people opposed the Bolsheviks known as whites- disunited opposition, loose collection of anyone who did not support them

➔ Invasion of allied forces- complicated civil war on behalf of whites, left WW, and left allies fighting Germany alone

➔ Allies invaded to help defeat Bolshevik threat- Bolshevik came out as victor ➔ Used by Bolsheviks as an advantage, positioned themselves as kind of nationalist force fighting against foreigners, and whites regarded as collaborators

➔ Outcomes- leadership of Lenin and Trotsky- ruthless, willing to use state violence and repression, able to cease power

➔ Bolsheviks changed name to communist party- isolated, everyone opposed them ➔ Created under the conditions of a siege mentality- bolsheviks saw themselves surrounded w enemies within and outside

➔ Creation of world's first communist state- USSR

➔ Soviet Union created by Lenin and his party

Reform 

➔ Change through the system, you can petition, run for government, citizens are active Revolution 

➔ Change by overthrowing the system, by force

Vladimir​ ​Lenin 

What​ ​is​ ​to​ ​be​ ​Done-​ ​Lenin 

➔ How to bring revolution to Russia

➔ Has elitist vision of how revolution will happen

➔ Sees need for a class of people (revolution professionals) to lead for revolution to succeed ➔ What they are doing is illegal so they have to do it in secret, and so the people have to be trained very well and know how to organize secret meetings, assassinate, etc ➔ Secret police- deeply feared bc it was indiscriminate and so they need hardcore fanatic revolutionaries to do what it takes

➔ Core of elite leaders to who would devote their life to revolution- leads to centralized authorities

➔ “Democratic centralism”- power diffused among people, but power is centralized at the same time- other vision of democracy- rule of the “people”- people= proletariat- if they are making decisions in behalf of the proletariat they are making decisions for the people Worker’s​ ​Opposition​ ​on​ ​Bureaucracy 

➔ From the perspective of enthusiasm about communism- part of the revolution ➔ Her observation- this kind of centralized bureaucracy is taking over everything ➔ Sense that we can build something better

➔ She sees what has become of communism- all the self activity that was supposed to be unleashed, where we would experiment w new things, but instead we have restrictions ➔ Instead of a decentralized world, we have centralized authority

➔ Pushing back against centralized and bureaucratic system

➔ Doesn't seem like communism if you have centralized people, we have traded in one system where elites told us what to do, and now there's just a different group of elites who do the same thing and you’re not better off

➔ Because of the siege mentality they thought they need a sense of authority ➔ Marx- something better was going to be coming, more positive than Weber ➔ Weber- pessimistic, if we are going to live in mass society, we are going to need bureaucracy whether we have communism or capitalism

➔ If you do things in small scale you can do it informally but once it becomes a huge institution you need an hierarchy and more paperwork, policies and forms to organize itself

➔ Weber is saying- we have created mass societies, things are big, changing and modern and to live like this we need bureaucracies no matter what political system we follow Call​ ​to​ ​Power 

➔ Bolsheviks saw immediate revolution to a communist system

➔ Once they took power, they didn’t know what to do because there never had been a communist state in history

​ ​ ​From​ ​Lenin​ ​to​ ​Stalin 

Leninist​ ​State 

➔ One party state, and dictatorship elections where members are only a part of the communist party

➔ Struggle for succession- when Lenin died there was no system for transaction of power, and he became nervous and was worried about Stalin- Trotsky vs Stalin- intraparty fight ➔ Stalin defeats Trotsky (sent to exile and then assassinated)

➔ NEP- new economic policy, merged command economics w market economics Stalin’s​ ​Rise​ ​of​ ​Power​ ​1929 

➔ Socialism in one Country- at the time Soviet Union is building up, it is important to concentrate it in one place, focus inwardly and then worry about the spread later ➔ 5 year plan- setting targets for production- full command economy under authorities

➔ Key- heavy industry- can’t be a world military power unless you’re an industrial power Human​ ​Costs​ ​of​ ​Stalinist​ ​Economics 

➔ Collectivization- eliminate all private ownership of land and rural traditional society → get big communal farming institutions. Farmers moved to state farms, done forcefully ➔ Dekulakization- kulak- peasants who were a little wealthier than the average peasants. Declared class enemy- exploited fellow peasants according to his ideology ➔ The Terror Famine 1932-3 in Ukraine, to what extent was the famine unavoidable or state made, made far worse by government policy, took away food from Ukraine to feed industrial w

➔ The Gulag- network of prison camps that were like a combination of prison work camps and concentration camp

Totalitarianism 

➔ Government involves itself in every aspect of the state

➔ The Great Purge- many people arrested on suspicion or accusation 1934-38- installing fear, used torture to make people confess to things they didn't do bc they had no other evidence

➔ The NKVD- secret police, used to carry out purges

➔ “Greatest killer of communists”- because of all his purges of his own party, killed almost all the leaders of the party

➔ Authoritarian- no democracy

➔ The cult of personality- creating himself as greater than life, controlled everything, his face was everywhere, shown in particular ways in propaganda, elevate one person as the leader contrary to marxism- not supposed to be about a hero

Stalin’s​ ​Superpower 

➔ The Great Patriotic War (WWII)- came out of winning side even tho it had huge casualties, Soviet Union defending itself from Fascism

➔ Industrial/Military Buildup- succeeded in turning Soviet Union into a major industrial power

➔ New kind of empire

Administration​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Purge 

➔ John Scott = optimistic about the Soviet Union- his vision of enthusiasm showed how he felt all of this would lead to get the people together and the overall ending would be a positive one, and lead to progress

➔ Party dictates what truth and reality is- they have official monopoly of knowledge ➔ Lot of censorship, very totalitarian, fear was used to keep uniformity of thought, he wasn’t afraid to use violence

Stalinism​ ​is​ ​Finally​ ​Dead 

➔ The Thaw- Khrushchev's attempt to lessen the oppression of the Stalin era and undo some of the wrong things he did aka destalination

➔ Meets w party leaders and talks about the purges and terror w which Stalin ruled (secret speech)… first attempt to put in place the thaw

➔ He lessens the use of the gulag as a political tool… attempt to undo what stalin had created (humanitarian) but also an economic reason… these labor camps were inefficient ➔ A major leader comes in and wants to institute reform like less censorship but at the same time not undo some of the major achievements in the Stalin era like heavy industry and the overall structure of the Soviet State

Khrushchev​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Soviet​ ​Foreign​ ​Relationship 

➔ Peaceful coexistence w the west- instead of seeing US and SU as inherent enemies he tries to figure out a way how not to kill each other and blow up the earth… wants to keep the rivalry going, but lessen the tensions

➔ Khrushchev visits US

➔ The Kitchen Debate- cold war relic, as a part of the attempt to cool things down there was a cultural exchange… the US had a kitchen exhibit/display in Moscow showing its technology like electric blenders to show the progress of capitalism… when Khrushchev was asked to comment on what he saw he started talking about saying how they had achieved so much in lesser time than US, and they will catch up and pass US in terms of progress soon

➔ The U-2 Incident- occurred when U-2 (Spy plane) was shot down by the Soviet Union, Khrushchev announced they found the U2 but left out some information bc Eisenhower

said it was a NASA plane bc he assumed the plane was broken down and the pilot had died, but after making the fake story, Khrushchev showed the plane and pilot 1956-​ ​Soviet​ ​Communism​ ​is​ ​Challenged 

➔ Poland- reformist communist leader comes into place and challenges the Soviet's control over Poland… wanted independence

➔ Becomes spot of tension, helps Polish push a bit but not too far

➔ Didn’t want to totally cut off but wanted to lessen control

➔ Hungary- wanted to remove themselves from the Soviet State's totally… wanted to leave Warsaw act and be a democracy and not be dictated by the communist party ➔ Assertion of independence is met by huge troops sent by the Soviet

➔ Willing to use military violence to put down the revolt

➔ Widespread discontent

Fraying​ ​Relationships​ ​w​ ​Major​ ​Powers 

➔ The Cuban Missile Crisis- Soviet ally Cuba which had a revolution which was opposed by the US, which pushed Cuba and Soviet closer

➔ Soviet started building long and middle range missiles installations in Cuba, US had seen this as a violation because it was too close to the US and they reacted strongly ➔ SU​ ​believed​ ​the​ ​US​ ​had​ ​missiles​ ​all​ ​around​ ​SU​ ​in​ ​Europe​ ​why​ ​couldn’t​ ​they​ ​have their​ ​missiles​ ​in​ ​Cuba​ ​to​ ​help​ ​protect​ ​Cuba

➔ US put a blockade around Cuba (quarantine)- agreed to take out missiles from Turkey to get them to take out missiles from Cuba

➔ Sino- Soviet Relations- China and SU never got along… Cuban Missile Crisis made relationship worse

➔ In Mao’s view- what happened was that Khrushchev wimped out, he should have been willing to go to nuclear war

Soviet​ ​Power​ ​and​ ​Prestige 

➔ SU is extremely powerful at this time

➔ It has nuclear weapons (2nd largest)

➔ Global​ ​pole​ ​in​ ​the​ ​cold​ ​war

➔ Space race- never purely scientific, could be used to blow up enemy- always politicized ➔ Sputnik→ first human made thing to enter space, SU ahead of US

➔ Inspired president (US) to send a person to the moon

➔ Stakhanovite Movement- became a symbol… we should all work as hard as possible and be like him

One​ ​Day​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Life​ ​of​ ​Ivan​ ​Denisovich 

➔ Survival… prisoner becomes a tool, cog in the machine

➔ If Stalin wanted to reach bis 5 year goal, he cannot see them as people but tools he can use to drive industrialization

➔ Forced labor under brutal conditions

➔ Accused of being a German Spy then forced to confess

➔ WW2- Great Patriotic War for Soviet Union

Secret​ ​Speech 

➔ Khrushchev-Great Purges- we know what Stalin did, in an illegal way used torture and convicted people of these things they didn’t do… we need to come in terms w what just happened

➔ Lenin used violence if the revolution was in danger, but Stalin had already gotten it and was going crazy w it w his paranoia

➔ He is not willing to entertain the idea that there is problems w the state, its structures and its ideas

➔ Trying to criticize soviet leadership under Stalin and not the state and revolution ➔ Not trying to overthrow it, trying to bolster soviet state

➔ Trying to build up Soviet Union by decreasing some restrictions

​ ​From​ ​Stagnation​ ​to​ ​Historic​ ​Transformation 

The revolution stagnates

The​ ​Brezhnev​ ​Era,​ ​1964-82 

➔ A ruling Bureaucratic class

➔ Economic Stagnation-problems industrial, agricultural sector- was a big , strong, global power but had a lot of internal problems

➔ Cultural Repression- heavy state censorship, use of secret police, everything bolstered by development of technology

➔ Détente- lessening of tensions between Russia and the West, they thought this could be a good idea so they could get technological ideas from the west, save on resources- had potential benefits

➔ Prague, 1968- youth movement, new reforms that were democratic, further divided socialist, communist worlds, Brezhnev sends 40,000 to Czechoslovaks to put down protests to reinstate socialist 1 party state-- Promise crushed

➔ Brezhnev Doctrine

➔ This put a stain on international communist movement

➔ Popular resistance-state decline

Dissident​ ​Culture: 

➔ Solzhenitsyn- another soviet dissident

➔ Samizdat- self publishing, people secretly passed literature that were banned by government keeping literature alive

➔ Sakharov-famous dissident, looked at Western European culture-believed Soviet union needed to stand for freedom of speech and civil liberties- this would save Russia

➔ The Moscow-Helsinki Group- dissent group, soviet citizens that monitored human rights, civil rights that were violated in Russia, documented all violations, monitored soviet government, constant reminder to government when government overstepped, were forcibly disbanded but got back together

➔ Andropov-Chernenko Years- very short years of rule by these 2 men between Bret and Gorb years, 15 months and 13 months

➔ The Debacle in Afghanistan 1979-89- soviet invasion of Afghanistan, soviet union's vietnam- ill advised invasion that went very poorly, lasted longer than necessary, wasn't a fair fight (Afghanistan was little equipped and had little people to fight). Soviets withdrew, became Cold War site of contention between world super powers ➔ The system changes then begins to unravel

The​ ​Gorbachev​ ​Years,​ ​1985-91 

➔ Not trying to change our system entirely, trying to make it better

➔ Revolution achieved a lot had gains

➔ We can recapture some of what we can have here

➔ Waiting in line in the grocery store, not enough food or things you want ➔ Quality of consumer life was so in contrast to the west

➔ Chernobyl, 1986- nuclear disaster, explosion at nuclear power plant, one of the factors that led people to realize how Russia needed reforms, also the way the government handled it- wanted to keep it quiet, was an international incident, affected surrounding countries, and showed the weakness of the soviet system

➔ Perestroika- restructuring- economic reforms of Gorbachev, influenced by his defense minister, both believed cold war and Soviet and US militarism had caused them to divert tremendous resources to the military- civilian life has suffered, couldn't have growth in civilian life- didn't have money to provide for the civilian needs of people, trying to find efficiency

➔ Used to describe economic reforms- whole reform system Gorbachev put in place ➔ Trying to restructure economy- liberalization with the goal of making Russia stronger ➔ Glasnost- openness, transparency, idea of lessening repression and censorship that was

the hallmark of soviet life, some books that were banned were bought up, more art allowed, liberation of media- people want more and more- snowball effect, we want more freedom, more reform→ let to the breakdown of Soviet Union

➔ Lessening of state control over society/ intellectual life

➔ Illegalize books movies now legalized

➔ Less repression of ideas and information

➔ Demokratizatsiya- get more people involved in politics in the local level, democratization, does not mean free and open elected keep leninist model of politics,

have more dynamic participation, part of the problem was the country was lumbering along, get more citizens involved, new ideas

➔ Doesn't mean usual democracy- wanted to keep the Leninist state in place ➔ Trying to get more people involved in politics instead of previous elections/ fake democracy

➔ Introduce new ideas freshen up Soviet system

➔ Novoe Myshlenie- new thinking, in the foreign policy field, and promoting relationship w the west

➔ Refers to foreign-policy

➔ Believe that Soviet Union could promote better relations with other countries by taking more active role in doing so

➔ Productive relationship between Gorbachev and Reagan than Gorbachev and bush Toward​ ​the​ ​End​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Cold​ ​War 

➔ Superpower Diplomacy

1) INF Treaty, 1987- trying to work differently w the Americans, US and Soviet sat down and decided to get rid of a whole class of nuclear weapons

➔ Intermediate range nuclear forces treaty

➔ Landmark treaty- US agreed to eliminate this type of nuclear weapon and allow people to come and check that both sides had done so

➔ Popular Protest in E. Europe

2). The Berlin Wall Falls, 1989

➔ Military Industrial Complex- relationship between arms dealers and the government and the military

➔ Eisenhower leaving his presidency- was a military general before he became president ironic bc, he warned the country that military industrial complex was getting too much, country imbued w militarism, huge militarized society, and think of yourself as warlike people, don’t become dominated by military

➔ Had become a potent symbol of Soviet-backed repression in Eastern Europe Post​ ​Soviet​ ​Russia 

How​ ​to​ ​Build​ ​the​ ​New​ ​Russia? 

➔ Yeltsin begins to raise his voice and says we need to go further

➔ Wants to see real democracy

➔ Hardliners- communists who wanted to go back to a rigid com,union control before Gorbachev came into control

➔ Coupe fails

➔ 1991- Yeltsin is elected as president of Russian federation

➔ End of Cold War- Warsaw Pact dissolved

➔ Russia is entering a new era

➔ Under control of autocracy of tsars which gave way to theories period where small group of elites monopolized most of the political power- one party state- what will replace it? ➔ Capitalist democracy- get rid of economic and political system of the communist system Yeltsin

➔ He was trying to move Russia where they could be allied w the western countries ➔ Instituted in economic reforms shock therapy which was the transition from a command economy into a market based capitalist one

➔ Needed to be done quickly all at once

➔ Shock therapy was difficult- capitalism is more uncertain, markets go up and down, this meant a whole new range of uncertainties was injected

➔ Unemployment came back

➔ Loans for share program- transfer ownership of means of production to the public- away from ownership by state to individuals

➔ State owned all means of production, the Russian leaders had to figure out how can we transition from that to individuals and corporations

➔ System got hijacked by systems of interest- government needed money, and was trying to figure out how to privatized the industry- Govt would give shares of previously state held industries to banks in return for loans

➔ Rich got a lot more richer

➔ Government was unable to pay back loans

➔ Not transition into a market system is but an oligarch dominated system ➔ Lot of political and social problem were unaddressed

➔ Yeltsin era started w promise but end w without much solution

➔ War in Chechnya- way in which Russia is trying to figure out what it is ➔ Conflict to keep elements of its old empire who were trying to gain independence ➔ Chechnya- war became an opportunity to show Russian nationalism ➔ Turned into a lot more violent and difficult fight than they expected

➔ End of Yeltsin era was sad - came in w big dreams and good intentions w more civil rights and taking away political repression but made terrible choices

➔ Some of his inability to reign in the power of oligarchs- by the time he resigns he apologizes to the Russian people

➔ Left a broken man

➔ Followed by Putin who will inject a different vision of what Russia will look like in the future

The​ ​Putin​ ​Era-​ ​New​ ​Authoritarian 

➔ Introduces new style of leadership

➔ Dismantles the democratic system using legal methods

➔ Dictatorship can come within a democracy

➔ State control of media- cannot have democratic society without freedom of press or speech

➔ If you can control information and media you can control people

➔ Can control info the people can gain access too

➔ Easier and harder to do than previous times

➔ Harder bc people had ways to get around it

➔ New form of nationalism- old familiar outdated forms of masculinity

➔ Putins solution was a new form of nationalism in which a strong state is strength but people say its authoritarian

➔ Prevents himself as a macho man who spends time doing manly things ➔ Culture personality around himself

➔ Created around him a system that promotes Russia is now strong bc it has a strong leader

➔ Taken control of the electoral system

➔ Russia relies a lot of oil and gas for economy however the price of these things go up and down

➔ When price of oil was high money was going into Russia like crazy which lead to a little bit of growth

➔ When it's not been, state relied too heavily on that economy so faced problems ➔ Russia's economy was not diverse

➔ Used militarized language to show strength

Territorial​ ​Ambitions 

➔ Annexation of Crimea- strategically important, became a part of Ukraine and was a place that had a lot of Russian speaking people

➔ Had to do w Russification campaigns by Stalin that pushed indigenous people out to replace by Russians

➔ Allowed Putin the opportunity to make the argument that Crimea is full of Russia and so it should be a part of us

➔ He took it- Russia sent forces there and took it over

➔ He knows who one will take a gamble to take actions

➔ Eastern Ukraine region which has been in a state in conflict for years now- part that was more ethnically Russian- break Ukraine into half and take eastern half

➔ Euromaidan protests- favored more integration w west, don't want anything to do w Putin ➔ Eastern Russian nationalists in Ukraine want it to become a part or ally of Russia ➔ Baltic region- independent state or republics of USSR are scared bc they know what will happen to them

➔ Will Putin be able to regain them

➔ Lot of instability surrounding Eastern European parts of former Soviet Union ➔ Places in Poland and Hungary- affinity w Putin style of politics

➔ Russian government involvement of election in US- US intelligence services that agents acting in behalf of Russian government had impacts-in favor of Donald Trump ➔ Represents Putin desire to weaken west

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