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BYU-I - BIO 264 - Class Notes - Week 6

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BYU-I - BIO 264 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image BIO 264 – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I    MODULE 6: LECTURE NOTES –  THE   NERVOUS SYSTEM  MAIN IDEAS:    The nervous system coordinates voluntary and involuntary actions in the body.  This works by sending and receiving information from the brain   Comprised of billions of cells 
  Functional unit is the neuron (they perform specific functions in different locations).  
Two major parts of the nervous system are the CNS (Central Nervous System) and PNS (Peripheral 
Nervous System). 
CNS – consist of neurons in the brain and spinal cord while PNS consist of neurons with sensory 
input, and motor output. 
Those with sensory input are afferent while those with motor output are efferent
o  Pattern of information transmission:    Stimulus → receptor → afferent pathway (input signal) → control center → efferent pathway (output 
signal) → effector → response.
  It goes through the PNS to the CNS and back to the PNS to make effects.  Neuron consist of four structure for sending and receiving of information. 
Cell body (soma) – surrounds the nucleus and play major role in synthesizing proteins. 
Dendrites – short, branched process that extends from the soma. They receive information using 
neurotransmitters. 
Axon – large process that extends from the soma (at point of origin – axon hillock). Axon sends 
information. Surrounded by myelin. 
Myelin is important for electrical insulation and helps to speed up action potentials. 
Axon terminals – multiple endings of an axon when terminated at targets. 
Note: if a neuron is damaged, it is not easily replaced. This is why there is limited recovery to serious 
brain or spinal cord injuries. 
Neurons are classified based on the number of processes extending out of the cell. These includes 
multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar neurons. 
Multipolar neurons: three or more processes that extends out of the cell body. Comprised of more than 
99% of neurons in humans. Mostly found in the CNS and efferent division of the PNS. 
Bipolar neurons: only two processes (dendrite and axon) that extend in opposite directions from the cell 
body. These are found in the retina of the eye and the olfactory system. 
Unipolar neurons: Have single, short processes that extend from the cell body, branches into two more 
processes that extend in opposite directions. Found primarily in the afferent division of the PNS. 
Neurons are also classified based on direction in which the signal travels (in relation to the CNS). Three 
different types exist: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.  
Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit information from sensory receptors in the skin, or internal organs 
towards the CNS. Most of them are unipolar. 
Motor (efferent) neurons transmit information away from the CNS towards effector organs. They are 

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Lanning Baker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Bio and anatomy
Name: BIO 264, Module 6 Notes
Description: Notes on The Nervous System
Uploaded: 10/17/2017
2 Pages 12 Views 9 Unlocks
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