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OHIO / Engineering / MUS 1240 / Who is george gershwin?

Who is george gershwin?

Who is george gershwin?


Terms for History of Rock and Roll I Midterm

Who is george gershwin?

1. I-IV-V 12 Bar Blues Progression

2. Tin Pan Alley

∙ New York City music publishers that were greatly popular from as early  at 1880, all the way to the 1950’s. Tin Pan Alley brought us the  following big names:

o George Gershwin- an American composer and pianist. Largely  contributed to Broadway, his most famous works being, “An  

American in Paris” and, “Porgy and Bess”

o Irving Berlin- an American composer and lyricist, widely  

regarded as the greatest songwriter in American history, and  

also contributed many compositions to Broadway.

o Cole Porter- popular Broadway composer and songwriter, wrote,  “Kiss Me Kate.” With which he won a Tony Award for.

o Jerome Kern- Considered the “heart” of tin pan alley, he wrote  nearly 700 songs that were adapted and used in over one  

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hundred stage performances. Most of his written work is the  

foundation for the “jazz” genre that we see today.  

3. Phil Spector

∙ A music producer and artist that pioneered the first idea of using the  recording studio to create distinct music. An example would be the  usage of multitrack layering and recording.  

o “Good Vibrations” -The Beach Boys

4. Maybellene

∙ Widely regarded as the first rock and roll tune. Written originally by  Chuck Berry and released in 1955, it was inspired from the  

western/hillbilly tunes. It was also one of the first crossover hits,  crossing from western/hillbilly to R&B.  We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of theories/ideas?

5. Crossover We also discuss several other topics like Fluorescent labeling is used in what?

∙ (This example taken from Blackboard) a song that having been  released on one chart/market (R&B), is then released on a different  chart/market (Pop). This allowed for R&B hits to be “covered” by white  artists on the Pop charts – an economic solution for the pop  

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Don't forget about the age old question of What is hydrologic cycle?

establishment to access the popularity of R&B without promoting BlackWe also discuss several other topics like What is the classification of alcohol?

artists or music. Tutti-Frutti by Little Richard, covered by Pat Boone is  an example.

6. Pat Boone

∙ A white artist that covered Rhythm and Blues chart toppers and  arguably increased the popularity of the new and rising genre of Rock n Roll. His covers included but did not limit to Tutti Frutti and Long Tall  Sally, originally written by Little Richard.  

7. Rumble

∙ Written by Link Ray and his Ray Men in 1954, it was one of the first  singles to be banned on radio waves in the United States. It was  believed to encourage teenage violence and riots. It also largely  

explored the new sounds of feedback, distortion, and the usage of the  power chord.  

8. Buddy Holly

∙ Regarded as a Rock n Roll pioneer, he grew up during the great  depression and became a popular crossover artist between R&B,  country, and gospel, and eventually Rock n Roll. Unfortunately, he was  killed in a tragic plane crash that sparked the beginning of trouble for  Rock n Roll music.  

9. Song for Woody

∙ Written by Bob Dylan in 1961, he pays tribute to Woody Guthrie in  song by using the same tune as Guthrie’s 1913 Massacre. 1913  Massacre was when someone yelled fire at Christmas party full of  about 500 striking miners when there was no fire, and many were  killed via trampling.  Don't forget about the age old question of How does technology evolve?

10.Alan Freed

∙ Alan Freed was a disc jockey in 1921, or now commonly referred to as  just a DJ, and was popular for promoting rhythm and blues, blues,  country, and later on referred to music as Rock n Roll on the radio.  

11.Rock Around The Clock

∙ Written by Bill Haley and his Comets in 1954, it was also written in the  12 Bar Blues format. It became an anthem for teenage and youth  rebellion, but never became a chart topper. Joe Turner’s Shake, Rattle,  and Roll beat it to the top spot.  

12.Ahmet Ertegun

∙ Developer and founder of Atlantic Records beginning in 1947, mainly  for Rhythm and Blues and Rock n Roll artists. He also took part in

writing and composing his own music, and later went on to be a  chairman to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland.  

13.Muddy Waters

∙ His original name being McKinley Morganfield, he was a blues singer  and commonly referred to as the king of the Chicago blues. He was  also a major crossover artist, contributing to the country, blues, rhythm and blues, folk, jazz, and rock n roll charts. The Beatles, notably, also  took inspiration from his songs and style.  If you want to learn more check out How will you describe the ptolemaic world system?

14.Leo Fender

∙ Founded Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company. He  designed amplifiers, bass guitars, and electric guitars that are still  widely regarded as the standard for guitars today. He was inducted  into the Rock and Roll hall of fame for these achievements, though  never learning to play any of them himself.  

15.Todd Storz

∙ A very successful radio personality that created a chain of radio  stations with the primary goal of giving the “top 40” format. Notably,  this was the first usage of the “top 40” format.  

16.Sun Studio

∙ A recording studio opened up by Sam Phillips in 1950, residing in  Memphis, Tennessee. It brought artists such as Ike Turner, Jackie  Brenston, Jerry Lee Lewis, Elvis Presley, and many more.  

17.Peter, Paul and Mary

∙ American folk band that formed in New York City during the year of  1961. Folk music became increasingly popular after their album, “Peter Paul and Mary” debuted in the top ten Billboard Magazine chart for ten  consecutive months.  

18.Bo Diddley Song

∙ Bo Diddley (song) by Bo Diddley was culturally innovative due to the  inclusiveness in African beats in the tune. It topped R&B charts, and  was Diddley’s first hit single.  

19.Robert Johnson

∙ Singer of Cross Road Blues, he brought the world a sudden conspiracy  after he died at the age of 27. People believed this was due to the  Faustian myth, that one sells their soul to the devil himself to achieve  success.  


∙ Illegal payment made to a radio station so that an Artist’s song may be played multiple times in an hour, or however the artist likes. That radio station/company may accept payment to play songs, as long as they  state it openly to the audience before the song is played.  

21.Brill Building

∙ A large building holding music industry offices. Where writers,  producers, artists, and musicians could work on different floors but  very easily reach each other due to everyone being in one building.  

22.Greenwich Village

∙ A village in lower Manhattan that sourced many musical acts such as  Bob Dylan, James Taylor, and Peter, Paul, and Mary. It was largely  centered around folk music, and also had Broadway venues.  

23.Doo Wop

∙ A genre of music developed mainly by African American musicians  based in areas like Chicago, New York City, and Detroit. Nonsense  syllable music, used in songs such as Sh-Boom by the Chords. Often to  referred to as being very simple music, sometimes with layered alto  and soprano sounds.  

24.Tutti Frutti

∙ Originally written by Little Richard, it was considered the model of rock  and roll songs to come. The powerhouse opening that Little Richard  sings is what he imagined the drums would song like but instead he  

sang it. Considered R&B, singers such as Pat Boone covered it due to  its explosive nature that shook the music industry.  


∙ An early style of rock and roll, originating around the 1950’s. Mainly  played in the south, it combines the tunes of western and R&B  together. The phrase itself originating from rock and roll mixed with  hillbilly. Also considered “classic rock and roll”. Bill Haley, Johnny Cash,  and Buddy Holly popularized this genre with their chart toppers.  

26.Blue Suede Shoes

∙ Written by Carl Perkins in 1955, it is considered one of the first  rockabilly tunes every recorded. That being said, it was obviously a  crossover hit between blues, western, R&B, and pop.  

27.Jimmie Rodgers

∙ Pioneer of blues and folk music, also considered the father of country  music. Mainly known for rhythmic yodeling, especially in his more  popular hit, “Train Whistle Blues.”

28.Ed Sullivan

∙ A major American television personality, and sports and entertainment  reporter. He presented rock acts, jazz, and R&B throughout all 23 years of production. It was the longest running tv show in American history.  

29.The Twist

∙ Chubby Checker sang the cover version of this song (Originally written  by Hank Ballard and the Midnighters) and it became wildly popular and so did the dance associated with it. It is iconic because even though it  has been nearly sixty years since its publishment, everyone still knows  how to do this dance. So it started the “dance craze” music.  

30.Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller

∙ American musical producers and songwriters during the 1950’s. They  wrote insanely popular crossover hits such as Hound Dog and Kansas  City. They also launched the new “girl group” sounds.  

31.Blue Moon of Kentucky

∙ Originally written as a bluegrass hit by Bill Monroe, Elvis Presley  covered it in the 1950’s. Written as a slow waltz, Sam Phillips (The  owner of Sun Records) helped Elvis rewrite into an upbeat R&B tempo.  

32.What events in each of these artist’s lives influence the “Death of Rock and  Roll and Triumph of Soft Sounds: Chuck Berry, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly,  Elvis Presley, Little Richard

∙ Chuck Berry

o Jailed multiple times, for tax evasion and taking an underage girl across state lines.  

∙ Jerry Lee Lewis

o Married his fifteen-year-old cousin

∙ Buddy Holly

o Died in horrific plane crash

∙ Elvis Presley  

o Drafted into the army

∙ Little Richard

o Believed himself to be singing the devils music and returned to  gospel music and the church.

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