Terms for History of Rock and Roll I Midterm
1. I-IV-V 12 Bar Blues Progression
2. Tin Pan Alley
∙ New York City music publishers that were greatly popular from as early at 1880, all the way to the 1950’s. Tin Pan Alley brought us the following big names:
o George Gershwin- an American composer and pianist. Largely contributed to Broadway, his most famous works being, “An
American in Paris” and, “Porgy and Bess”
o Irving Berlin- an American composer and lyricist, widely
regarded as the greatest songwriter in American history, and
also contributed many compositions to Broadway.
o Cole Porter- popular Broadway composer and songwriter, wrote, “Kiss Me Kate.” With which he won a Tony Award for.
o Jerome Kern- Considered the “heart” of tin pan alley, he wrote nearly 700 songs that were adapted and used in over one
hundred stage performances. Most of his written work is the
foundation for the “jazz” genre that we see today.
3. Phil Spector
∙ A music producer and artist that pioneered the first idea of using the recording studio to create distinct music. An example would be the usage of multitrack layering and recording.
o “Good Vibrations” -The Beach Boys
∙ Widely regarded as the first rock and roll tune. Written originally by Chuck Berry and released in 1955, it was inspired from the
western/hillbilly tunes. It was also one of the first crossover hits, crossing from western/hillbilly to R&B. We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of theories/ideas?
5. Crossover We also discuss several other topics like Fluorescent labeling is used in what?
∙ (This example taken from Blackboard) a song that having been released on one chart/market (R&B), is then released on a different chart/market (Pop). This allowed for R&B hits to be “covered” by white artists on the Pop charts – an economic solution for the pop
Don't forget about the age old question of What is hydrologic cycle?
establishment to access the popularity of R&B without promoting BlackWe also discuss several other topics like What is the classification of alcohol?
artists or music. Tutti-Frutti by Little Richard, covered by Pat Boone is an example.
6. Pat Boone
∙ A white artist that covered Rhythm and Blues chart toppers and arguably increased the popularity of the new and rising genre of Rock n Roll. His covers included but did not limit to Tutti Frutti and Long Tall Sally, originally written by Little Richard.
∙ Written by Link Ray and his Ray Men in 1954, it was one of the first singles to be banned on radio waves in the United States. It was believed to encourage teenage violence and riots. It also largely
explored the new sounds of feedback, distortion, and the usage of the power chord.
8. Buddy Holly
∙ Regarded as a Rock n Roll pioneer, he grew up during the great depression and became a popular crossover artist between R&B, country, and gospel, and eventually Rock n Roll. Unfortunately, he was killed in a tragic plane crash that sparked the beginning of trouble for Rock n Roll music.
9. Song for Woody
∙ Written by Bob Dylan in 1961, he pays tribute to Woody Guthrie in song by using the same tune as Guthrie’s 1913 Massacre. 1913 Massacre was when someone yelled fire at Christmas party full of about 500 striking miners when there was no fire, and many were killed via trampling. Don't forget about the age old question of How does technology evolve?
∙ Alan Freed was a disc jockey in 1921, or now commonly referred to as just a DJ, and was popular for promoting rhythm and blues, blues, country, and later on referred to music as Rock n Roll on the radio.
11.Rock Around The Clock
∙ Written by Bill Haley and his Comets in 1954, it was also written in the 12 Bar Blues format. It became an anthem for teenage and youth rebellion, but never became a chart topper. Joe Turner’s Shake, Rattle, and Roll beat it to the top spot.
∙ Developer and founder of Atlantic Records beginning in 1947, mainly for Rhythm and Blues and Rock n Roll artists. He also took part in
writing and composing his own music, and later went on to be a chairman to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland.
∙ His original name being McKinley Morganfield, he was a blues singer and commonly referred to as the king of the Chicago blues. He was also a major crossover artist, contributing to the country, blues, rhythm and blues, folk, jazz, and rock n roll charts. The Beatles, notably, also took inspiration from his songs and style. If you want to learn more check out How will you describe the ptolemaic world system?
∙ Founded Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company. He designed amplifiers, bass guitars, and electric guitars that are still widely regarded as the standard for guitars today. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll hall of fame for these achievements, though never learning to play any of them himself.
∙ A very successful radio personality that created a chain of radio stations with the primary goal of giving the “top 40” format. Notably, this was the first usage of the “top 40” format.
∙ A recording studio opened up by Sam Phillips in 1950, residing in Memphis, Tennessee. It brought artists such as Ike Turner, Jackie Brenston, Jerry Lee Lewis, Elvis Presley, and many more.
17.Peter, Paul and Mary
∙ American folk band that formed in New York City during the year of 1961. Folk music became increasingly popular after their album, “Peter Paul and Mary” debuted in the top ten Billboard Magazine chart for ten consecutive months.
18.Bo Diddley Song
∙ Bo Diddley (song) by Bo Diddley was culturally innovative due to the inclusiveness in African beats in the tune. It topped R&B charts, and was Diddley’s first hit single.
∙ Singer of Cross Road Blues, he brought the world a sudden conspiracy after he died at the age of 27. People believed this was due to the Faustian myth, that one sells their soul to the devil himself to achieve success.
∙ Illegal payment made to a radio station so that an Artist’s song may be played multiple times in an hour, or however the artist likes. That radio station/company may accept payment to play songs, as long as they state it openly to the audience before the song is played.
∙ A large building holding music industry offices. Where writers, producers, artists, and musicians could work on different floors but very easily reach each other due to everyone being in one building.
∙ A village in lower Manhattan that sourced many musical acts such as Bob Dylan, James Taylor, and Peter, Paul, and Mary. It was largely centered around folk music, and also had Broadway venues.
∙ A genre of music developed mainly by African American musicians based in areas like Chicago, New York City, and Detroit. Nonsense syllable music, used in songs such as Sh-Boom by the Chords. Often to referred to as being very simple music, sometimes with layered alto and soprano sounds.
∙ Originally written by Little Richard, it was considered the model of rock and roll songs to come. The powerhouse opening that Little Richard sings is what he imagined the drums would song like but instead he
sang it. Considered R&B, singers such as Pat Boone covered it due to its explosive nature that shook the music industry.
∙ An early style of rock and roll, originating around the 1950’s. Mainly played in the south, it combines the tunes of western and R&B together. The phrase itself originating from rock and roll mixed with hillbilly. Also considered “classic rock and roll”. Bill Haley, Johnny Cash, and Buddy Holly popularized this genre with their chart toppers.
26.Blue Suede Shoes
∙ Written by Carl Perkins in 1955, it is considered one of the first rockabilly tunes every recorded. That being said, it was obviously a crossover hit between blues, western, R&B, and pop.
∙ Pioneer of blues and folk music, also considered the father of country music. Mainly known for rhythmic yodeling, especially in his more popular hit, “Train Whistle Blues.”
∙ A major American television personality, and sports and entertainment reporter. He presented rock acts, jazz, and R&B throughout all 23 years of production. It was the longest running tv show in American history.
∙ Chubby Checker sang the cover version of this song (Originally written by Hank Ballard and the Midnighters) and it became wildly popular and so did the dance associated with it. It is iconic because even though it has been nearly sixty years since its publishment, everyone still knows how to do this dance. So it started the “dance craze” music.
30.Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
∙ American musical producers and songwriters during the 1950’s. They wrote insanely popular crossover hits such as Hound Dog and Kansas City. They also launched the new “girl group” sounds.
31.Blue Moon of Kentucky
∙ Originally written as a bluegrass hit by Bill Monroe, Elvis Presley covered it in the 1950’s. Written as a slow waltz, Sam Phillips (The owner of Sun Records) helped Elvis rewrite into an upbeat R&B tempo.
32.What events in each of these artist’s lives influence the “Death of Rock and Roll and Triumph of Soft Sounds: Chuck Berry, Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Elvis Presley, Little Richard
∙ Chuck Berry
o Jailed multiple times, for tax evasion and taking an underage girl across state lines.
∙ Jerry Lee Lewis
o Married his fifteen-year-old cousin
∙ Buddy Holly
o Died in horrific plane crash
∙ Elvis Presley
o Drafted into the army
∙ Little Richard
o Believed himself to be singing the devils music and returned to gospel music and the church.