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COLORADO / Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology / MCDB 1150 / What is a non superimposable mirror image?

What is a non superimposable mirror image?

What is a non superimposable mirror image?

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology
Course: Intro/Cellular and Molecular Biology
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: MCDB 1150 Exam 2 Overview
Description: Carbs, Lipids, Cellular Membrane
Uploaded: 10/19/2017
5 Pages 63 Views 4 Unlocks
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Bio​ ​Exam​ ​2​ ​Overview


What is a non superimposable mirror image?



Carbohydrates 

Mono, di, oligo, poly -saccharide

- (CH2O)n n = 3-7

- N =

- 3 - triose

- 4 - tetrose

- 5 - pentose

- 6 - hexose

- 7 - heptose

Chiral​ ​- isomers, not superimposable on mirror image

- Stereoisomer​ ​- same molecular formula but spatially different

- Enantiomer​ ​- physically similar, biologically different

- Diastereomer​ ​- not mirror images, not physically similar

- Humans can digest D-glucose but not L-glucose because our enzymes do not recognize the shape


What is a polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals?



We also discuss several other topics like What are some truths about texas?

Polysaccharides Don't forget about the age old question of What kind of cases does the supreme court of canada handle?

- Starch​ ​(plant) and glucose​ ​(animal)

- Energy storage

- Alpha 1-4, alpha 1-6

- Glucose is highly branches (1-6), providing ends for enzymes to digest

- Cellulose

- Plant structure

- Linear flipped beta 1-4 glucose


Does cellulose provide structure?



- H bonds between each strand

- Chitin

- Linear flipped beta 1-4 n-acetyclugosamine

- H bonds between adjacent strands

- Fungi walls, structural

- Peptidoglycan

- Flipped beta 1-4 n-acetylglucosamine + n-acetylmaramic acid

- Peptide bonds between same chains on adjacent peptides

- Functions​ ​of​ ​sugars

- ID for cells (bind to receptors)

- Carbs are good at storing energy bc they have nonpolar covalent bonds

Lipids

- Hydrophobic

Fats

Steroids

Phospholipids

Fats​ (triacylglycerol)

- Glycerol head + ester linkage + fatty acid tail We also discuss several other topics like What is the equation to be used when pressure may drop along the reactor?

Fatty​ ​acid 

- Saturated

- Solid at room temperature

- High melting point

- Unsaturated

- Liquid at room temperature

- Low melting point

- Less hydrogens, less H bonds that need to break, less energy required

- Cis - hydrogens are on the same side, we have these in our body naturally

- Trans - hydrogens are on opposite sides

Partially hydrogenated fats are bad for us because when we add H to unsaturated fats, it causes twists in the structure that our body cannot deal with

Trans fats are bad - processed foods If you want to learn more check out It is the 2nd largest exporter of rice globally; what is it?

Saturated fats are less bad

Polyunsaturated fats are good

- Functions​ ​of​ ​fats

- Long term energy storage

- Stores twice as many calories per grams compared to sugar

- Less oxidizing than sugars → greater yield upon oxidationIf you want to learn more check out Who is known as the father of french psychiatry?

Cholesterol 

- Insoluble in aqueous solutions

- Cholesterol + protein = lipoprotein

- Membrane fluidity buffer

HDL - GOOD

- 25%

- Processed in liver, ovaries, testes

- Excreted

- Protects against cardiovascular disease

LDL - BAD

- 75%

- Deposits on artery walls

- Increases health risks

- Obesity, diet, heredity, no exercise

Steroids 

Phospholipids 

- Polar/charged R group + Phosphate + Glycerol = Polar head group If you want to learn more check out What are the three steps necessary to define the classes for a frequency distribution with quantitative data?

- Fatty acid = Nonpolar tail

- Form liposomes (vesicles) in water

- H2O inside liposome and outside

- Don’t form micelles because two fatty acid tails

Membrane 

1. Membrane​ ​Lipid​ - structural backbone

a. Phospholipids

b. Sphingolipids - differs from phospholipids bc different backbone, no phosphate group, longer fatty acid tails

i. Gangliosides - R group is a sugar

ii. Sphingolipid-enriched lipid raft has longer tails, making the membrane less fluid, increases signal transduction efficiency but also pathogen efficiency

c. Cholesterol

d. ALL​ ​MEMBRANE​ ​LIPIDS​ ​ARE​ ​AMPHIPATHIC

- Permeability​ ​- rate molecules pass through membrane

- Fluidity​ ​- rate of lateral diffusion in membrane

- Depends on fatty acid tail packing

Permeability

Fluidity

Increase tail length

Decrease

Increase saturation

Decrease

High Temperature

Liquid crystal, disorder

Low Temperature

Crystalline gel, order

Increase Cholesterol

High Temperature

Decrease

Decrease - blocks movement of FA tails

Increase Cholesterol

Low Temperature

Decrease

Maintains - prevents freezing

2. Membrane​ ​Protein​ - specialized function: signal reception/transduction, transport, cell recognition

a. Associated = integral or peripheral

i. Integral

1. Alpha helix

a. Hydrophobic side chains outside helix

b. Peptide groups H bonds inside helix

c. 3+ can create amphipathic alpha helix, aqueous pore/channel

d. Anchor - single spanning or multispanning (polytopic)

2. Beta barrel

a. Hydrophobic side chains face bilayer

b. Hydrophilic side chains face aqueous pore

3. Glycoproteins - integral protein + oligosaccharide

a. Glycosidic linkage

ii. Peripheral

1. Noncovalent interactions with membrane + proteins

iii. Lipid​ ​anchored

1. Covalently bound lipid

a. GPI - protein + lipid + sugar

b. Or protein + fatty acid

c. “Soluble”

b. Integral proteins electrostatically bond to peripheral ones

c. Isolate integral proteins with fatty acids

d. Isolate peripheral proteins with salt

e. Protein​ ​functions​: pores, anchors, receptors, enzymes

3. Membrane​ ​Carbs​ - specialized function: signal reception/transduction, transport, cell recognition

Membrane​ ​Transport

Passive diffusion

Diffusion through pore/channel

Facilitated diffusion - carrier protein

Active transport - transporters/pumps

Nonpolar​ ​molecules​ ​go​ ​through​ ​membrane​ ​faster​ ​because​ ​polar​ ​molecules​ ​can’t​ ​interact​ ​with nonpolar​ ​tails

- Selective​ ​Permeability​ ​- molecules pass through membrane at different rates depending on properties and composition of bilayer

- Permeation​ ​- to move through

- Partition from aqueous phase

- Diffusion across hydrocarbon phase

- Partition into aqueous phase on other side

- Ability to diffuse depends on solubility in hydrocarbon interior

- Phase​ ​- polar, nonpolar

- Partition​ ​- tendency of solute to be soluble in one of two immiscible solvents - Partition coefficient: increase hydrophobic molecules increases solubility

- Diffusion​ - spontaneous, random movement, requires no energy

- NOT gradient driven

- Net diffusion - result of the movement

- From high to low concentration

- At equilibrium, rate is the same but net movement is zero

- Through bilayer - most to least permeable

- Small nonpolar - no barrier

- Small polar - channel

- Large polar - carrier

- Ions - carrier/channel

- Passive - no protein of energy required

- Small nonpolar

- Small polar

- Pore/channel

- Small polar

- Ions

- Aquaporin - water channel

- Ligand gated

- Carrier

- Large nonpolar/polar

- Ions

- Facilitated​ ​diffusion​ ​- carrier proteins, passive, no energy required

- Osmosis​ ​- diffusion of water

- Hypertonic​ ​solution​ ​- solute more concentrated outside, water flows out of cell, cell shrinks - Hypotonic​ ​solution​ ​- solute more concentrated inside, water flows into cell, cell bursts - Isotonic​ ​solution​ ​- no next movement of water

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