Cell Diversity: Cell features of different groups of organisms; links to evolution and health Know what features all living cells share.
∙ Nucleic acids (store genetic info for protein synthesis)
∙ Proteins (perform diverse tasks)
∙ Outer cell membrane (maintain suitable internal environment)
∙ Ability to acquire energy (from environment for ATP formation and 3 types of cellular work)
Use presence or absence of certain cell components to predict to which domain of life an organism belongs.
∙ Prokaryotic cell (bacterium)
o Smaller simpler structure
o DNA concentrated in nucleoid region (not enclosed by membrane) o Lacks most organelles
o Unique biochemical pathways
o No mitochondria
o No chloroplasts
∙ Eukaryotic cell
o More complex structure
o Nucleus enclosed by membrane
o Contains many types of organelles
Use cell features to predict whether a given cell is an animal cell or a plant cell. ∙ Most basic component and functions are same
∙ Plant cells: chloroplasts (for photosynthesis) cell wall and central vacuole (for structural support)
Relate mitochondria and chloroplasts to their principal metabolic roles and to the organisms in which they occur.
∙ Mitochondria: Eukaryotic powerhouses
o Role: burn energy rich molecules with O2 to gain lots of ATP energy for cellular work
o Plants, animals, fungi and protists have mitochondria for making lots of ATP ∙ Chloroplasts: solar energy collectors/converters
o Role: convert solar energy into energy rich sugars in photosynthesis
o Only in plants and algae
Relate the endosymbiont theory to the evolution of eukaryotes.
∙ Endosymbiont theory: explains how eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells; symbiosis is close relationship between 2 different organisms
∙ Mitochondria and chloroplasts….
o Are each surrounded by a double membrane Don't forget about the age old question of mutiplying exponents
o Have their own DNA and ribosomes and divide within the eukaryotic cell
Carbohydrates: Principles; links to energy metabolism, energy flow in ecosystems; links to health and metabolic programming
Identify a hexose as a 6carbon monosaccharide.
∙ Simple sugars glucose, fructose, and galactose are hexose sugars with 6 carbons (C6H12O6)
∙ All carbs consist of multiple CHOH units
Know the examples of mono, di, and polysaccharides from lecture. ∙ Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose
∙ Disaccharides: table sugar = sucrose; milk sugar = lactose
∙ Polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose
Identify what features make sugars an energy source.
∙ CH bonds
Identify the reason why sugars (and not ATP) are used for longerterm storage of energy. ∙ ATP is so unstable
∙ CH bonds in energy rich molecules like sugars store energy
∙ Sugars are broken down again later to fuel formation of ATP as needed for cellular work We also discuss several other topics like es 300 class notes
Predict the formula of sugars composed of more than one monosaccharide. List examples from class and explain principles involved
Relate high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to human sugar transporters and to fructose mal absorption.
∙ HFCS can cause flatulence and diarrhea: for some people, sugar transporters in human gut are slow in taking up extra fructose
∙ Diarrhea (i) removes essential, protective intestinal microflora, (ii) can lead to mineral deficiencies (iron, magnesium, calcium and zinc), (iii) interferes with oral contraceptive efficiency We also discuss several other topics like agamemnon study guide
Relate differences in lactose intolerance among human populations to their diets over evolutionary history.
∙ Lactose intolerance: different from allergy to milk; cause by lack of lactase
Relate the structures of starch, glycogen, and cellulose to their respective digestibility, their functions, and the organisms and tissues in which they occur.
∙ Starch: energy storage carbohydrate in plants; glycogen: energy storage carbohydrate in animals; cellulose: cell wall for structural support in plants (3 polymers made of glucose) ∙ Starch and glycogen: easy to digest
∙ Cellulose: hard to digest; make up tightly packed fiber structure of plant cell walls Relate the structures of the starches amylose and amylopectin to the respective speed of their breakdown.
∙ Amylose: long, digested slowly, in beans
∙ Amylopectin: highly branched; digested quickly Don't forget about the age old question of precalculus chapter 5 study guide
Relate different carbohydrates to their roles in the programming of human metabolism. ∙ Glycogen: quickly mobilized and quickly exhausted: good for sprint/mental tasks ∙ Fat: slowly mobilized and more lasting: good for extended exercise/marathon Photosynthesis: Principles; energy flow in ecosystems
Follow the flow of energy between producers and consumers.
∙ Sun solar energy converted to chemical energy by producers via photosynthesis chemical energy from food is used by consumers to power body functions energy leaves system as heat
Identify the energy donor ATP and the H shuttle NADPH as the link between light reactions and carbon conversion reactions of the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. ∙ Light and water enter the chloroplast and are used in the light reactions associated with thylakoids to form ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. ATP and NADPH are used to power this process (Carbon dioxide enters the chloroplast and is converted to sugars in the biochemistry of the Calvin Cycle in the stroma (the fluid-filled space around the thylakoid membranes)) in the Calvin Cycle. Once used in sugar production, ATP becomes ADP and a phosphate group Don't forget about the age old question of psyc 311 textbook notes
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∙ NADPH turns to NADP+, all of which return to the light reactions to be recycled to ATP and NADPH.
Locate light reactions and Calvin cycle to chloroplast grana and stroma, respectively. ∙ Same answer as above
Know the source of oxygen produced in photosynthesis.
∙ Where formed: chlorophyll
∙ How: light absorbed an electron is energized and given up to an electron acceptor (1st component of an electron transport chain) chlorophyll replaces its lost electron with an electron extracted from a water molecule (water molecule is split into 2 electrons 2 H+ and 1 Oxygen Atom
∙ Why: to be used in next steps of photosynthesis
Apply the model of the hydroelectric dam to photosynthetic ATP formation by ATP synthase, and identify active and passive transport of H+ in chloroplasts. Make table of which parts of the model correspond to the parts of the ATPmaking machinery in the chloroplast and which movements of protons are passive and active, respectively ∙ Water stands for: protons (H+)
∙ The turbine stands for: ATP synthase
∙ Lit up light bulb stands for: ATP produced
Identify the following as energyrich states in photosynthesis: Excited electrons; H+ gradient; ATP and NADPH; Sugars.
∙ Excited electrons: (energy input) sunlight energizes electrons to high energy electrons ∙ H+ gradient: (energy input) energy lost by electrons fuels active uphill transport of H+ from low H+ in stroma to high H+ within thylakoid space
∙ ATP: (energy release) H+ flowing downhill from high H+ within thylakoid space to low H+ in stroma through the ATP synthase lose their energy
∙ NADPH: reducing agent
∙ Sugars: output
Respiration: Principles; energy flow in ecosystems; aerobic cellular respiration Place cellular respiration into the context of energy and carbon flow between producers and consumers; identify the overall inputs and outputs of cellular respiration. ∙ Inputs:
o Sunlight energy
o ATP, sugars, and O2
Predict changes in the binding capacity of hemoglobin for O2 and CO2. ∙ Hemoglobin binds O2 in the lungs and releases O2 in the muscle
∙ The binding capacity of hemoglobin for O2 is high in the lungs and low in the muscle region
Place cellular respiration (and ATP formation) into the context of cellular work. ∙ ADP and phosphate are combined to ATP with the help of energy from food ∙ ATP used during exercise
Locate glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport to cytosol, mitochondrial matrix, and inner mitochondrial membranes, respectively.
∙ Cytosol: glycolysis; mitochondria
∙ Mitochondrion: pyruvate; citric acid cycle makes ATP
∙ Electron transport chain: electrons extracted form glucose and pyruvate Identify the H shuttle NADH as the link between carbon conversion reactions (glycolysis and citric acid cycle) and mitochondrial ATP formation in cellular respiration. Make table of locations/reactions where NADH is formed and where it goes next
∙ Glycolysis in the Cytosol yielding 2 NADH that go into mitochondrial electron transport chain
∙ Glycolysis produces 2 ATP t
∙ Mitochondria: 2 pyruvic acid result from splitting glucose in glycolysis into 2 acetyl CoA and an additional 2 NADH are created and transported to electron transport chain ∙ 2 acetyl CoA move into citric acid cycle in matrix of mitochondrion where 6 NADH are produced and transported to electron transport chain and 2 ATP are produced ∙ In electron transport chain: 28 ATP are synthesized by ATP synthase Identify the terminal electron acceptor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and its essential role in energy metabolism.
∙ Oxygen is terminal electron acceptor
∙ Essential role in energy metabolism: oxygen used to convert nutrients to carbon dioxide and ATP
Identify the following as energyrich states in cellular respiration: CH bonds in food molecules; NADH; H+ gradient; ATP.
Review and describe summary slide with energy conversions in respiration
∙ CH bonds in food molecules: electrons from food provide energy delivered to mitochondrial electron transport chain
∙ NADH: electrons transported by NADH lose their energy when flowing along electron transport chain
∙ H+ gradient: energy input; energy lost by electrosn fuels active transport of H+ from low H+ in matrix to high H+ in intermembrane space; energy release: H+ flowing from high H+ in intermembrane space to low H+ in matrix through the ATP synthase lose their energy
∙ ATP: energy input; energy given up by H+ turns the ATP synthase and energizes ATP formation
Relate the link between mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis to the model of the hydroelectric dam, and identify active and passive transport of H+ in mitochondria. ∙ ATP synthase “turbine” acts like a water driven mill grinding grain in intermembrane space
Relate heat loss in metabolism to energy flow through ecosystems.
∙ Solar energy enters converted to chemical energy chemical energy used by consumers energy leaves system as heat back into atmosphere
Explain why mitochondria generate heat (as a form of energy) in endothermic organisms and how the uncoupling protein enhances heat generation.
∙ The mitochondrial uncoupling protein provides a channel across the membrane through which protons (H+) flow right back downhill w/out piling up or making ATP, releasing all energy as heat