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AU / Geography / GEO 1010 / List of countries that belongs to south asia?

List of countries that belongs to south asia?

List of countries that belongs to south asia?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Geography
Course: Global Geography
Professor: Brysch
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: global and geography
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam 2
Description: This study guide includes all topics that will be on Exam 2
Uploaded: 10/20/2017
7 Pages 54 Views 2 Unlocks
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Chapter 6: South Asia  


What are the countries that are classified as south asia?



∙ Countries that are classified as “South Asia” o Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, The Maldives, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal

∙ “Subcontinent”

o Originally part of Gondwana

o 120 million years ago; split and moved  northward  

o 50 million years ago collided with Asia  Himalaya Mountains and Karakoram  

Range

 Mt. Everest still growing:  

∙ 2.4 inches a year

∙ Nepal Earthquakes: 2015

o 4-25: 7.8 magnitude  

o 5-12: 7.3  

o Epicenter was near Nepal’s most densely  populated area: Kathmandu  

 Nepal; also: India, Bangladesh• sparked  avalanche on Mt. Everest  


What are the two major river systems in south asia?



 Killed ~9,000 people• Hazard -> loss of  life = disaster  

 Injured > tens of thousands  

 ~two million were left homeless  

∙ Worst natural disaster to hit Nepal  

since 1934 earthquake; $7Bill

o Worst natural disaster of 2015

o EQ caused 15% spike in human trafficking   The women are trafficked first to India,  and then to Sri Lanka, Thailand or  

Bangladesh, from where they are taken  to Middle East, Europe and Africa,” said  Maiti Nepal’s communications officer  

Achyut Kumar Nepal.  

 Children sold into child labor, forced  

marriage, &sexual slavery  

 Relief &construction process was slow.


It is the 2nd largest exporter of rice globally, what is it?



 Government was criticized  

∙ Monsoon

o Def: wind blowing from a predominate  direction for a long period of time

 Major influence throughout the region  Predictable climate pattern Don't forget about the age old question of What are the five stages defined by freud's drive theory?

 Vital to rivers and agriculture

 Shapes daily life

∙ 2 major river systems in South Asia

o Indus (west)

 Headwaters  India

 Dominates eastern ½ of Pakistan Don't forget about the age old question of What is a scientific process of transforming data into insight for making better decisions?

∙ Semiarid: river key for irrigation

 1960 Indus Waters Agreement

∙ World Bank assisted

 Pakistan: controls water of much of  

Indus and western tributaries

 India: right to divert water from 3  

eastern tributaries

∙ Context of Kashmir conflict

o Ganges/Brahmaputra (east)

 Both are fed by: summer monsoon  

(rainfall) and snowmelt (glacial)

∙ Headwaters in Himalayas •  

Snowmelt  

∙ 2 rivers form world’s largest delta  

∙ Dominates landscape of  

Bangladesh  

∙ Delta constantly in flux

o Erosion  

o Deposition

o Volume &speed  

 Ganges Water Treaty (1960)

∙ India &Bangladesh had their own  

plans for river system

o No extensive irrigation system

o Treaty: 30 years (1996-2026)  We also discuss several other topics like Who is seneca?

• water use set by season  

o Population has doubled since  

treaty negotiations began  

o Added pressure &demand  

along w/climate change could  

undermine stability of the  

treaty  

o Rising sea level is a significant problem for  low-lying Bangladesh

 Netherlands provides:

∙ Wide-spread NGO support (58  

million Euro in 2008)

∙ Experience with land reclamation  to help Bangladesh develop  

infrastructure

o Land Reclamation:

 The government of  

Bangladesh has given  

top priority on  

reclamation of land from  

Bay of Bengal, according  

to Water Resources  

Minister Anisul Islam  

Mahmud

o Tropcal Cyclones:

 Def.: Low pressure systems that grow  over warm ocean between 5-15 degrees latitude north &south of equator

∙ Called hurricanes (North America)  &cyclones/ typhoons (Indian  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the definitions and significance?

&Pacific Oceans)  

∙ Bangladesh = particularly  

vulnerable

∙ Most of country -> low lying delta

∙ Vulnerability varies  

 Cyclone Mora

∙ "A combination of its lengthy and  

exposed coastline, inadequate  

infrastructure and plenty of fuel in  

the way of warm Bay of Bengal  

waters play a role in making this  

region the deadliest in the world as

it relates to tropical cyclones,"  

Javaheri said.  

∙ Indus River Civilization:

o Hearth -> Indus River  

 5,000 years ago  

 Flourished: 2900BCE – 1900 BCE

 Indus civilization was enormous  

∙ > 2,000 towns; 5 mill. ppl.; 2x size  

of Nile or Mesopotamia  

o urban morphology  

 No obvious signs of a  

leadership class  

 Scholars have not  

deciphered Indus script  

 Decline: Aryans; Indus  

River’s course changed  

∙ Caste System: We also discuss several other topics like Trustee theory refers to what?

o Divides people into inherited social hierarchy  o 4 principles: separation, division, hierarchy  o Each caste divided into jatis  

 Horizontal divisions with in each caste,  

along employment

 Estimated 3,000 jatis; 25,000 sub-castes

Chapter 7: Southeast Asia

o 2 distinctphysical geographies  

o 1)mainland Asian continent

 extension of Eurasian continent  

 Singapore = strategic waterway

o 2) thousands of islands in Pacific Ocean &  

extending to the eastern Indian Ocean

Mekong R. System  

o Delta highly fertile: perfect environment for wet  rice cultivation (think: monsoon rains)

o Vietnam = 2nd largest exporter of rice globally (Thaliand 1st)  We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of horizontal pgf?

o Irrigation, fish, &water for 65 million people  o 2nd most biologically diverse river system in the  world 2nd most biologically diverse river system in  the world  

Dam on Mekong  

o Mekong River Commission-1995  

o Who?: Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, &Thailand  o Xayaburi Dam: commission’s 1st test

o Laos plans to sell hydropower to Thailand  

(funding)  

o Poor(est) &landlocked (Laos)

o “clean” electricity• China is involved as well  money

o Cambodia &Vietnam fear damage to fertile plain  &delta -> fish >800 species of freshwater fish  &grow rice for global consumption  

o Back-up of silt &sediment upstream = < nutrients  down stream  

o Lack of freshwater flowing = salinization from  South China Sea = salinization of rice  

Mega-fish  

o Vietnam: 2nd largest exporter of rice globally  o Heart of Mekong Delta  

o Farmer: risked saline water = rice crop perished  w/in days  

o Worst drought since 1926  

o El Nino: excessive heat &reduced rainfall  

Communist government -> farmers grow three rice crops a  year vs. traditional one or two

o =loss of soil nutrients  

o Dam woes

o Lack of sediment  

o Flow too small  

o Not enough fresh water to dilute salt water    

Islands of Southeast Asia  

o Brunei

o Tiny but wealthy country on Borneo  

o Indonesia  

o 17,000+ islands

o Philippines  

o 5,000+ islands

o East Timor-Timor Leste  

o Newest country in region: independence 2002  

Cyclones-Typhoons  

o North of equator: May to November season  o Indian Ocean: April to June &Sept. to Nov.  

o Pacific typhoons

o Stronger than those hitting the western Atlantic  &southeastern U.S.  

o Usually Indian Ocean storms = less intense: smaller  area to gain strength  

 Cyclone Nargis 2008  

o The exception  

o Hit coast, low-lying Irrawaddy Delta, devastated  Yangon: country’s largest city  

o Death &destruction  

o Military junta’s control -> lack of concern about  human rights

 Refused int’l assistance

 Denied scope of disaster at 1st 

o Climate change = low-lying Myanmar more susceptible  to flooding from typhoons &storms  

Cyclone Nargis Devastates Myanmar  

o Worst natural disaster recorded in history

o 84,500 people were killed & 53,800 went missing  o As many as 2.4 million people were affected

Language in the Philippines  

o Local language “vs.” Spanish (1565+) &English  o Late 1800s: independence movement  

o Independence 1947: Tagalog -> national language  o But: native language of only 21% of population o Manila  

o 1971:removed Tagalog  

o 1980s+: Filipino -> national language  

English throughout the region  

o Many recognize the importance of knowing English  o Global language: medicine, academics, trade,  politics  

o Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines  

o Students from Russia & Asia  

o Affordable

o American accent  

Religion in the region  

• Hinduism  

• One of 1st to diffuse to Southeast Asia 2,000 years ago • During a “universalizing period”  

• Trade routes-Silk Road  

• Brahmin priests resettled &taught Hindu beliefs

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