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UF - ANT 3514 - ANT3514C Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UF - ANT 3514 - ANT3514C Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Exam 2 Study Guide Primates are the 4 th  largest order of mammals, comprise 6% of all species (~400  species) Sherwood Washburn – (1911-2000) neo-Darwinian approaches in anthropology 
and primatology, ‘call to arms’ in mid-20
th  century (anthropologists need to address  fundamental issues, holistically and across disciplines), comparative approach, 
student of Earnest Hooton (Harvard), father of “New Physical Anthropology” (1951)
Carolus Linnaeus – (1707-78) Systema Naturae 10th edition (1758), invented 
zoological nomenclature
Primates defined: 4 upper parallel cutting for teeth, solitary tusks on each 
side of each jaw, 2 pectoral teats, 2 feet are hands, flattened and oval nails, 
eat mostly fruits (except a few who use animal food)
St. George Jackson Mivart – (1827-1900) English biologist and critic of Darwin, 
improved upon Linnaeus with revised, ‘traditional’ definition of order
Established 2 primate suborders: Prosimii and Anthropoidea (removed bats 
and flying lemurs – colugos)
Primate traits: brain always with a calcarine fissure, innermost digit of at least
one pair of extremities is opposable, hallux (big toe) with a flat nail or none
Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark – (1895-1971) defined primate order based on 
anatomical trends, emphasizing: arboreal adaptations, dietary plasticity, parental 
Limbs and locomotion: pentadactyly (5 digits on each limb), grasping ability with a 
divergent (opposable) big toe (hallux) and thumb (pollex), human hallux is 
exceptional, hallux and pollex bear a nail (rest of digits primitively retain claws)
Teeth and Diet: heterodont (different types of teeth with different functions), all 
primates have lost an incisor and a premolar from the primitive pattern ( , eclectic and sometimes quite specialized diets
Brains and Senses: brains large relative to body size, increase in the size and 
complexity of cerebral cortex (“neocortex”) with increased convolutions (increased 
density of neurons and speed of nerve impulses), expansion in centers for memory, 
learning, and vision reduction in centers for olfaction (reduced olfactory bulb)
Greater emphasis in processing visual information, de-emphasis of sense of 
Eyes oriented more towards front of the head (stereoscopic vision) Life History: long gestation period, reduced litter size (1-2 offspring), increased 
period of infant dependency, long learning period, increased lifespan, tend to live in 
large, complex groups
Prosimians and simians are a grade (group of organisms sharing 
characteristics/adaptations but not closely related to each other); strepsirrhines and
background image haplorhines are a clade (organisms closely related by evolutionary descent, yet may
not appear very similar)
Suborder: Prosimii – ‘old school’, ‘pro’ = ‘before’, ‘simia’ = ‘ape’, ‘lower’ 
primates, grade-based classification, includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
Suborder: Strepsirrhini – ‘strepsis’ – ‘a turning inward’ + ‘rhinos’ = ‘nose’, 
modern classification, includes lemurs and lorises, synapomorphies include ‘hard 
anatomy’ (dental comb, grooming claw/digit, modified talus)
Dental comb is part of lower dentition (includes 4 incisors and 2 canines), 
used for grooming, lower 1
st  premolar often resembles a canine Grooming claw is on the 2 nd  digit of the foot  Primitive features: moist rhinarium, tapetum lucidum, unfused mandibular 
Superfamily: Lemuroidea – includes all lemurs of Madagascar, 5 familes: 
Lepilemuridae (Lepilemur), Lemuridae (5 genera), Indriidae (3 genera), 
Cheirogaleidae (5 genera), Daubentoniidae (Daubentonia)
Family: Lemuridae – lemurs (~4 genera), diet: fruits and leaves (some eat 
bamboo), mostly diurnal (some cathemeral = day+night), social: complex, 
multimale-multifemale, some monogamous, some unimale or female dominant, 
intermembral index: low, locomotion: arboreal quadrupedalism, often terrestrial
Family: Indriidae – indriids, diet: fruits and leaves, diurnal (woolly lemur is 
nocturnal), social: monogamy, but Propithecus is multimale:multifemale, body size: 
small to large (770-6800g), live ~23 years, intermembral index: 58-64, locomotion: 
Family: Cheirogaleidae – dwarf and mouse lemurs, eat animal prey, fruit, gum 
and leaves, nocturnal. Social: noyau (male’s range overlaps with multiple females’ 
range), seasonal breeders, reproduction: females have 3 pairs of nipples, bear 2-3 
young, body size: small (70-450g), live ~10-15 years, intermembral index: 68-72, 
locomotion: VCL
Family: Lepilemuridae – sportive lemurs (Lepilemur), eat leaves (hindgut 
fermenters with an enlarged caecum), coprophaegeous (eat feces), nocturnal, 
social: noyau, body size: small (500-1000g), live ~8 years, intermembral index: low,
locomotion: VCL (100% arboreal),
Family: Daubentoniidae – aye aye, eat animal prey, fruit, fungus, seeds, aye aye 
occupies a ‘woodpecker’ niche in Madagascar (e.g. evergrowing incisors, elongated 
rd  digit), nocturnal, social: noyae, solitary foaging, course black hair with white tips, live ~24 years (captivity), intermembral index: 71, locomotion: arboreal 
Superfamily: Lorisoidea – 2 major groups of prosimian primates: lorises and 
pottos (4 genera, ~12 species, 18 taxa, Africa and Asia distribution), and galagos 
(‘bush babies’, 6 genera, ~18 species, 34 taxa, Africa only)
background image Family: Lorisidae – lorises, eat insects, fruit, gum and leaves, nocturnal, social: 
noyau, scent communication very common, body size: small (210-1600g), live ~20 
years, intermembral index: 85-95, locomotion: VCL, reduced 2
nd  digit,  hyperdivergent hallux and pollex Family: Galagidae – bushbabies, sub-saharan Africa, eat insects and 
invertebrates, fruit, gum and leaves, social: noyau, nocturnal, highly specific vocal 
communication with prominent, mobile pinna and derived (enlarged) middle ear, 
body size: small (80-1500g), live ~15 years, reproduction: birth singletons, ‘park’ 
young while foraging, intermembral index: 52-69, locomotion: VCL (Arboreal 
Vertical Clinging Leaping
Infraorder: Tarsiiformes – 1 genus (4+ species), distribution: island SE Asia, 
phylogeny: molecular data clearly places tarsiers in Haplorhini, grade-based 
systems of classification put tarsiers in Prosimii
Genus: Tarsius – family: Tarsiidae, 1 genus (4-6 species), old world: island 
SE Asia, very specialized, rat-sized, vertical clingers and leapers, nocturnal, 
insectivorous, large eyes (and orbits), lack rhinarium and dental comb; eat 
insects, reptiles, birds, worms (100% faunivorous), intermembral index: ~58, 
social: noyau, but some species live in groups, locomotions: VCL, nocturnal, 
100% arboreal, large eyes and long ankles (tarsal bones, its namesake)
Anthropoidea – defunct suborder, includes monkeys, apes and humans (grade-
based terms), modern classification uses suborder Haplorhini and infraorder 
Platyrrhini vs. Catarrhini: 2 natural groups, both include ‘monkeys’ In fact, ~85% of all primates are ‘monkeys’ (although this is a grade-based 
Catarrhines (Apes and Old World Monkeys) are sister taxa, and are more 
closely related to each other than either is to Platyrrhini
Nasal morphology is distinctive between the 2 clades (‘platy’ = ‘flat’, ‘cata’ =
Platyrrhines lack an auditory tube (‘annular ectotympanic’), while Catarrhines
have an extended auditory tube (‘tubular ectotympanic’)
Platyrrhines have prehensile tails, while Catarrhines do not Many Catarrhine species have ischial callosities Family: Pitheciidae –  Subfamily: Pitheciinae – sakis, beared sakis, uakaris, hard object eaters 
(‘seed predators’), locomotion: bipedal leaping, no prehensile tail
Subfamily: Callicebinae – titi monkeys, 1 genus, 5 subgenera, ~30 species,
generalized monkey, small-to-medium body size, eat fruit, leaves, flowers, 
insects, social: monogamous (low sexual dimorphism), males are primary 
caregivers for young

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School: University of Florida
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: John Krigbaum
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Biology, Anthropology, primates, and evolution
Name: ANT3514C Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what's going to be on Exam 2. I recommend reading the assigned textbook pages and looking over past labs to study, as well. Best of luck!
Uploaded: 10/21/2017
11 Pages 103 Views 82 Unlocks
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