Humanities 335 - Midterm Exam Study Guide
Seneca "On the Treatment of Slaves":
● Summarize some of the reasons Seneca lists as to why slaves should be treated well by their masters "On the Taking of One's Own Life"
● According to Seneca, when is it appropriate for one to take her or his own life? ○ When someone is ill and when someone is disrespected by their master ● Why did the Sparta boy kill himself? Don't forget about the age old question of How to measure externalities?
○ The Sparta boy killed himself because when he got captured at war he did not want to become a slave
Mary, from the Koran.
If you want to learn more check out What is the incumbency advantage?
● Who are some of the figures here that also appear in the Old or New Testament (Christian Bible)?
○ Some of the figures here that appear in the old or new testament are Jesus, Mary, Gabriel (The angel), and God and is some different interpretations (Mainly Catholic) the palmtree is actually a big character
● In this chapter, how is the birth of Jesus and the events that followed described? How is this different from the Christian version?
○ It is super different because she basically had the child alone, she didn’t have Jose there with her and she didn’t have Jesus in amanger and also the three wise men weren’t there. It was basicallyher and a palm tree. Also, Jesus can talk even though he is an infant
Sem Tob, Moral Proverbs.
● How does Sem Tob gently remind his Christian audience that the Jews can also provide worthwhile advice? If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of pressure gradient force?
● Describe some other kinds of advice that Sem Tob develops in these proverbs.
The Song of the Cid (Commentary by Lynn H. Nelson)
● What is the general relationship between vassals and lords?
● Is the poem historically correct?
● What can El Cid do when he is banished by the King?
Lazarillo de Tormes (Anonymous)
· What is picaresque?
· Describe Lazarillo.
· Do you think the anonymous author is faithful in the descriptions of the characters? We also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate variable cost and contribution margin ratio?
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote.
● Who is Sancho Panza?
● From what addiction did Don Quixote suffer?
● Who is the woman Don Quixote calls "his lady"? If you want to learn more check out Is the average length of time a person born in a specific year can expect to live?
The Spanish Golden Age
● Takes place roughly between what dates?
● Name some of the outstanding contributors and events to this era.
● What does this “Golden Age” represent?
Power Point Presentations
#1 Introduction, Geography and Pre-Roman Spain If you want to learn more check out What is net income over sales?
· What do we mean by culture? What do the words Latino or Hispanic mean? Culture: how a group of people live and relate to each other in a community which is then passed on from generation to generation
Latino: a person who lives in the U.S who speaks spanish or has an ancestor who speaks spanish
The term Latino is often used in California while the term Hispanic is a term often used in Texas, Florida, and other parts of the U.S
The terms Latino and Hispanic are known as “cover terms”, or terms that attempt to incorporate many different families in one broad category
· To what principal continents do we return to uncover Latino roots?
The principle continents that we return to uncover the Latino roots include Europe and South America
· Why is knowing the geography of Spain (Iberian Peninsula) key to understanding its first peoples and history?
It’s important b/c it helps us understand how different cultures are shaped in the regions separated by the mountains
· Be able to identify major geographic features and cities as presented in PowerPoint Presentation.
Important mountain ranges include: Pyreneese, Cantabrian, Sierra Morena, Sierra Nevada
Important rivers include: Ebro, Duero, Tajo, Guadiana, Guadlaquivir
Regions of Spain: City of Alicante, Extremadura, Canary Islands, Valencia, La Mancha, Santiago de Compostela
· Know the historical names of Spain: Tarshish, Iberia, Hesperia, Ispania, Hispania, Al-Andalus.
· What's in the cave of Altamira? Where are the caves? Why are they significant? The Cave of Altamira, located near the town of Santillana, is important because it contains paintings of animals in motion and resting positions
· Who is the Dama de Elche (Lady of Elche) and what cultures does she represent? The Lady of Elche, a carving made out of stone, has Greek roots and is most likely from the Celtic-Iberian origin
The sculpture is considered to be very respected
● Which peoples of ancient Spain came to the Iberian Peninsula principally to trade, living on the Mediterranean coast, and which peoples migrated there to settle, mostly in the interior?
The Phonecians, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Carthaginians.
· Of all the ancient peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, which was the most important to later Spanish culture
The last and most important of Spain's ancient cultures was the Roman · What happened in the city of Numantia?
Entering in the heart of the Iberian Peninsula, Roman soldiers had to conquer territory one village at at time and face guerrilla warfare.
In the city of Numantia, it took 20 years to subdue and only surrendered when the inhabitants killed themselves
#2 Roman and Early Roman Spain
● Why is Roman civilization so important in the development of Spanish culture? ○ The Romans brought roads and city life to the lands
○ The Romans brought in their Latin language
○ The Romans brought in Christian religion
○ The Romans took part in naming important areas
○ The Romans brought in law and order
○ Romans called the Iberian Peninsula Hispania
○ They brought a good source of food such as grains and wheat to this region ● What did Rome bring to the Iberian Peninsula?
○ Same as above.
● Describe some of the Roman buildings and other structures we can still see today (Roman arch).
● When did Christianity arrive in Spain?
○ Christianity arrived in Spain during the time of the Romans in the 1st century ● What is the most important and longest lasting heritage of Roman Spain? The language
● How did Roman rule end in Hispania?
○ The Vandals, the Alani, and the Suevi all contributed to the destruction of Rome ○ The political and economic structure of the Roman Empire was also on the decline ○ The Visigoths
● What German tribe ended up dominating the Iberian Peninsula after the Romans and until the arrival of the Moors in 711?
#3 Islamic Spain
● What is Islam?
Islam was the religion of the Moore's.
it consisted of five different things the first being affirming that there is only one God, the second being praying five times daily, the third being giving alms to the poor, The fourth being fasting during the holy month of Ramadan; and a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in the life of the believer, if possible.
● Tell how this new religion was born and how it spread - when?
The religion of Islam was born after the Prophet Mohammed during the years 570 through 632what's talked to by Allah or God. Later all of the words as revealed to Mohammed written down by others in the koran the holy book of Islam
Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula to three continents after the death of Muhammad.
The spread of Islam arrived by 711
● What are the central beliefs of Islam?
There is only one God (Allah) and Muhammad is his prophet, pray five times a day, giving alms to the poor especially to widows and orphans, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan and a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in the life of a believer, if possible ● Who is the prophet Muhammad?
A respected man who received the word from God that was later written in the holy book of Koran.
● Who were the Moors?
The moors were Islamic fighters who overran most of the Iberian Peninsula and ended Visigoth rule
● When did the Moors come to Spain?
● Did the Moors arrive with their families?
The Moors did not arrive with their families
● What unique perspective did the Moors in Spain bring to the treatment of women? They believed that a women’s sexual behavior was a representation of the honor of a family
● How did the Moors modify the concept of "honor"?
They modified it by now allowing them to participate in public life
● Who is Pelayo?
King Pelayo was the king of Christian descent who resisted the Moors invasion of Spain. ● What is Al-Andalus?
The land of the vandals
● What are some of the typical architectural features of Islamic structures in Spain (consider the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Alhambra?)
Typical architectural features of Islamic structures include arches which consist of half horse shoes, use of gardens and water, the absence of human figures.they also loved to build a mosque and palaces. The Koran prohibits the presence of such human statures because it requires people to only worship allah
● When and where was the advance of the Moors in Europe stopped?
It was stopped in 1492 when Ferdinand and Isabella defeated the Moore's in Granada. ● What were some of the languages we could have heard spoken in the Spain of the Moors?
Arabic, Hebrew, Latin.
● What is the “Reconquista” (the Reconquest)?
The efforts of King Pelayo to reclaim Spain as a christian entity.
● Where did the Reconquista start?
It started in northern Spain in Asturia or Cantabrian Mountains.
● List some cultural strengths of the Moors.
The primary cultural strength of the Moore's was the religion, Islam, which was able to unify many peoples under one faith. The Moore's also a lot of diverse culture, permitting Christians and Jews to participate in the life of their greatest cities. Finally, the Moore's in Spain as well as Islamic scholars in other parts of the Muslim world translated to Arabic and preserved many of the great Roman and Greek classical writers, such as Aristotle and Plato. ● What products did the Moors introduce to the Iberian Peninsula?
The Moore's also bring in new products and technology to Spain, including rice, oranges, and lemons, sugarcane, cotton, fine Arabian horses, paper, Intricate irrigation systems, the concept of zero, and Arabic numbers.
#4 The Jews and Middle Ages in Spain
● When did the Jews arrive in the Iberian Peninsula?
○ (Around 1000 B.C) or (605-562 B.C.)
● Describe the relationship of the Jews with the Romans, Visigoths, Moors, and Christians. The Romans were quite nice to the Jews they allow them to construct synagogues and permitted the Jews to celebrate important religious holidays.
The Visigoths treated the Jews with persecution especially after 400 AD in Spain.
The Moors in other parts of the Islamic world, the new religion generally respected and tolerated Judaism because of a common ancestor Abraham.
initially the Christians tolerated the Jews and in many cases allow them to be physicians, bankers, and advisers to the Kings. However outside of monarch rule the Jewish community suffered persecution among Christian communities.
● What caused increasing Christian intolerance of the Jews in the thirteenth century? It was the expulsion of the Jews in 1492 by Queen Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain. This was also the fall of Grenada.
● When were the Jews who refused to convert to Christianity expelled from Spain? ○ Expulsion of the Jews by Isabella and Ferdinand in 1492
● Who are the Sephardic Jews?
○ Exiled Spanish refugee Jews that moved to northern Africa, Turkey, Italy, Greece and other Mediterranean lands
● What languages could be heard in Spain during the Reconquista?
○ The languages that were spoken included Hebrew, Arabic, and Spanish
● What was the most important Christian kingdom?
● In architecture, what were the Romanesque, Mudéjar, Gothic styles? Romanesque-architecture is characterized by defensive walls, wooden roofs, and arches reminiscent of Roman times in the shape of half circles. They were prominent during the times of 10th 11th and 12th centuries.
Mudejar-many of these Islamic Art is since worked for the Christians in the construction of churches and other structures. The artist from the south called mood to Haras, brought the famous Horshoe arch of Islamic lands to the Christian churches of the north. Does a typical Romanesca church might have both the Roman arch and the horseshoe arch present in the same structure. It is also characterized by the presence of arches in the shape of horseshoes as well as geometric designs on wood and stone, can also be seen in the interior of Romanesque churches.
Gothic styles-characteristics of the Gothic style include pointed arches, flying buttreses or supports that held up exterior walls, soaring interior names, large windows with Stainglass, and find sculptures and stone of important figures from the old and New Testament. ● What was Santiago de Compostela?
○ St. James (son of Zebedee), aka Santiago, first brought Christianity to the Iberian Peninsula
● Who was King Alfonso the Wise (Alfonso el Sabio)?
○ A scholar/king who employed writers and musicians from all three cultures to write books and compose music for the court
● Who was El Cid?
○ The most famous Christian knight was Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, or “El Cid”, who served for King Alfonso & fought on his own
#5 Renaissance and the Golden Age in Spain
● What is the period called the Spanish Renaissance? Who are the important rulers during this period in Spain?
The Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy and said spread to other European countries. Renaissance means rebirth it was a cultural trends that thrived and renewed interest in the classic Greeks and Romans, in the literature, and philosophy, and in their art and architecture.
The important rulers of this time in Spain are Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand who married in 1469, thus uniting most of the Spanish Peninsula under the rule of one in creating the first modern nation of Western Europe. Another important ruler was Charles the fifth who was son of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. And lastly Philip the second, who was the son of Charles the fifth.
● List the 4 important events of 1492.
○ The Moors were defeated at Granada
○ The Jews were expelled from Spain
○ The monarchs sponsored a venture of exploration of the western seas & the lands ○ The first Spanish grammer book was made
● What is the Golden Age of Spain? Why was Spain on the decline during this period? ○ The Golden Age of Spain was the time when writers, painters, dramatists, and other artist thrived.
○ Spain was on the decline during this period because of the spending by the aristocracy and due to the squandering of the gold and silver from the America
● Who is Antonio de Nebrija? What is the significance of the book, Gramática de la lengua española, 1492 (Grammar of the Spanish Language)?
he was a professor at the University of Salamanca in Spain and wrote the first grammar book of the romance language and personally gave a copy to Isabella. The significance of this book was that it sought to teach the Spanish-language to the common people. ● What is the Escorial?
○ A structure that was at once a palace, monastery, center for government, school, and royal cemetery built by Philip II between 1575-1581 (16th century) within North of Madrid ● Who is Miguel de Cervantes?
A Spanish playwright poet and novelist. He wrote Don Quixote.
● Why do you think that Don Quixote is still being read today?
It'll still be in read today b/c it was the 1st real novel ever written.
The story is about doing right and wrong which serves as a mold to live.
● Why has this novel inspired so many imitations in Western European literature? It inspired so many imitations b/c it was the first novel about keeping chivalry alive It was also the contrast of wrong and right.
Another reason is b/c the main character are visualized as the most famous dreamer. ● What is Lazarillo de Tormes about?
○ It is about facing economic challenges and getting through it by any means (even with cons and lies)
● What is the “national musical instrument” of Spain?
○ The guitar
#6 The Geography of Latin America and the Maya
● Be able to identify the major geographic features and important cities of the Spanish-speaking countries of the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. See also the Maps section in Study Aids.
● Also know where these are: The Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean ● What is the longest and most extensive river and the major mountain chain of South America?
○ In South America, the continent is dominated by two great natural features: the Andes mountains and the Amazon River basin
● What is the first New World culture that Columbus met?
○ Arawak Tribe of the Bahamas
● Where did the people who make up Latin America come from?
○ Includes Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Chili, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezula, Bolivia, Paraguey,
● What was the location of the Maya civilization?
○ The Maya are an indigenous people of Mexico and Central America who have continuously inhabited the lands comprising modern-day Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico and southward through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras
● Why was human sacrifice so important?
It was important because it was a way to ensure the goodwill of the gods.
● Name some specific cultural areas in which the Maya excelled greatly. Symbols, math and calendar
● Why were mathematics and calendars so important?
To keep track and time on their crops
● Where is Tikal and why is it an important city?
It's located in Guatemala & its important b/c it was the mayan captial
#7 The Aztecs and the Incas
● Where did the Aztecs live?
They settled in Lake Texoco, which is the site of modern day Mexico city. ● What is Tenochtitlan?
It was the capital of the Aztec empire. It is Mexico city. It was the island that sat in the Lake Texcoco.
● What was Quetzalcoatl?
Another Aztec diety that was described as a feathered serpent. However the guy was also remembered us taking the form of a man. According to Mexica myth, he created humankind.
● Describe the Aztec Stone (Sun Calendar).
The calendar was 25 tons and measured 12 feet across. It was originally located in the temple in the center of the Astec capital; the stone was placed in a horizontal position in human sacrifice took place on the surface. It is a calendar that represents 260 days of the Aztec year. ● What is Nahuatl?
The language of the Aztecs. It is still spoken today in parts of Mexico.
● What is the 5th Sun?
It is the center of the calendar which stands as the face of Tonatiuh. It is the biggest of the four suns on the calendar .
● Where did the Incas live?
The Incas lived in South America in present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile.
● What is Quechua? What are quipus?
It was a recordkeeping device used by the Incas as a way for them to run and maintaining their Imperial tasks. System of knots and chords.
Quechua- is the language of the Incas.
● Why was the llama (and alpaca, vicuña) important for the Inca?
They could use them as sacrifice, and could also be used for meat, leather for sandals, and dung for fertilizier.
● Of the three Pre-Columbian Empires in the Americas, which was the most extensive (covered the most land)?
○ The Incas. From their capital city of Cusco, in Andes at 11,000 feet above sea level, the Incas controlled an empire of desert (the coast), mountain (the Andes), and forest (areas of the Amazon rain forest).
● What is Machu Picchu?
○ Machu Picchu, the hidden, sacred city, is one of the most famous historical sites of the world
#8 Columbus and Cortez
● What are some of the legends (unverifiable stories) about Columbus? Queen Isabella didn't pawn her jewels to finance the first trip; most of the money came from property the Spanish monarchy seized from the Jews; 2) there is no known independent document that shows Columbus was ever a captain or in charge of any
sea-going vessel before he was sent to the Americas; 3) Columbus later claimed that spreading the Christian faith was important on his first trip, yet he did not take a single priest with him in 1492; 4) his 1492 flagship, the Santa María, ran aground near the island of Hispaniola and had to be destroyed (the admiral covered up this accident in a 1493 letter to Isabella and Ferdinand).
● Why is Columbus remembered today?
Columbus' trip was officially sponsored by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, who had just defeated the Moors at Granada (1492); 2) Columbus documented his journey w/ journals, showing how to arrive and how to return; 3) Columbus' objectives were broad—establish trade routes, expand Christianity, claim territory; 4) the printing press had recently been developed & the news of Columbus's trip spread rapidly throughout Europe
● What are some possible terms for describing the meeting of Columbus and some indigenous peoples of the Americas?
The Discovery, the Encounter ,European invasion
● What are some of the New World crops and foods that have since become world-wide? ○ Tobacco
● What New World culture did Columbus first meet?
The taino culture in the caribbean
● Who is Hernán Cortés?
Spanish conquistador that conquered the aztec empire
● Who was Moctezuma?
● What role did La Malinche (Doña Marina) have in the Spanish conquest of Mexico?
La Malinche was w/ Cortés as his ambassador & as his tongue throughout the conquest of Mexico
● What did Cortés finally do with Doña Marina?
After the conquest of Mexico, Cortés (who was already married), gave La Malinche to a loyal captain, Juan Jaramillo, and she disappears from history
#7-8 Pizarro and the Incas
● Identify Francisco Pizarro and Atalhuapa.
invasions of inca
● Why was Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca a rather unique conquistador? shipwreck which mad him walk from florida to mexico an along the way learned several indigenous languages and customs
● What are the three “G”s of the conquistadors?
god glory gold
● What cause did Fray Bartolomé de las Casas defend?
priest who defended the defense of the indigenous
Be able to identify the following and why they are important:
● Pyrenees Mountains
● Guadalquivir River
● Mediterranean Sea
● Straights of Gibraltar
● Cantabrian Mountains
● Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
● The continents of Africa, Europe, North and South America
● Iberian Peninsula
● The Gulf of Mexico
● The Spanish-speaking countries of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Sea
● The largest river complex of South America
● The dominate mountain chain of South America
Story of Spain
● What are some of the cultures that have contributed to Spain’s identity? ○ The principle continents that we return to uncover the Latino roots include Europe and South America
● Be able to identify the following dates, events, places, and peoples and why they are important to the early history of the Iberian Peninsula:
○ Celts, Iberians, and Celtiberians
○ Phoenicians and Greeks
○ Carthaginians and Romans (Punic Wars)
○ The Romanization of the Iberian Peninsula
○ The two most important and lasting heritages of the Roman Empire to Spain ○ The Visigothic rule
○ 711 A.D.
● The Battle of Poitier (France)
● Santiago de Compostela
● The Battle of Covadonga (Cantabrian Mountains)
● Al-Mansur (10th C.)
● El Cid
● The ethnic composition of Medieval Spain
● Isabel (Castile) and Fernando (Aragon)
● The Inquisition
● Who refused to finance Columbus’ voyage?
● How many voyages did Columbus make to the New World?
○ Four voyages
● The year 1492 (4 things)
● Charles (Carlos) V
● The Spanish Armada (1588)
● What country was Spain’s main enemy on the high seas?
● The Black Legend
● Spain’s economic problems of the 16th and 17th C. and the Golden Age ● When were the Moors officially expelled from Spain after 1492?
○ on April 9, 1609
The Penguin History of Latin America
· What was the primary reason for European maritime expansion prior to 1492? · What country was the leader in exploring sea trade routes to the Indies by going around Africa?
· When did Columbus “encounter” the New World?
· What country turned Columbus down before Spain financed Columbus’ voyages?
· What was the main reason for the drastic drop in the Indian populations? · Know where the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Empires were. Which one had collapsed before the arrival of the Spanish?
· Who were Pizarro and Cortés?
· Know the general history of the conquest of these two empires.
· Whom did many Aztecs think Cortés might have been?
· What were some of the characteristics of the structure of the Aztec and Inca societies? Are there any structural similarities with Spanish society?
· Did the Aztecs and Incas practice human sacrifice? Why?
· What Spanish Kings visited the New World?
· What possible justification for the Conquest of the Indian worlds did the Spanish use?
Harvest of Empire
● Be aware of the basic facts about the devastation of the Indian populations. ● What was the Indian population of the Americas before and after the Encounter? ● Who was Bartolomé de las Casas?
○ A 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar who became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians" ● What is mestizaje?
○ refers to racial and/or cultural mixing of Amerindians with Europeans
The Latino Reader
● Know who Cabeza de Vaca was and what he is remembered for.
○ A Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition