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Psych 224000 - Class Notes - Week 6

Created by: Sabira Solaiman Elite Notetaker

Psych 224000 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image Lecture 10 Sensory System: Vision ________________________ Sensory receptors are specialized neurons to detect 
physical stimuli in external world
_______________________ Sensory transduction is process whereby stimuli from 
external world transformed into electrical charges (transformed into changes 
in membrane potential; changes are called ___________ receptor potential)
Eye: part of CNS (retina is part of brain), is suspended in orbits of skull; six 
__________________ extraocular muscles attaching eye to skull
Light travels through ____________ pupil, then __________________ vitreous 
humor
, to _____________ retina, which houses sensory receptors called 
_______________ photoreceptors
A photoreceptor converts ________ light (electromagnetic radiation) into 
________ chemical signals (sensory transduction)
Photoreceptors: 2 types  1) Cones: 6 million; provides us with ______________ most visual info about our environment (responsible for ___________________________ daytime 
vision, ________________ high visual acuity, processes ________________ 
colour)
2) Rods: 120 million; better for __________________ night time vision,  ____________ poor visual acuity Note, rods are ________ more photosensitive than cones (rods do not require 
as much light to respond). 
Fovea: _______ central region of ___________ Retina; almost all ____________ 
cones in retina are concentrated on fovea; mediates our most acute vision; 
when looking at something, our ocular muscles work to position light emitted
from object directly on our __________ fovea
_________________ Optic Disk is part of retina where ____________ axons 
carrying visual info leave eye to form optic nerve; contain NO receptors, so 
it’s a ___________________ blind spot
Retina Anatomy
Three Major Types of Cells
1) Photoreceptors ___________ and __________ cones and rods
2) Bipolar Cells – neurons to  synapse w/ ____________________ photoreceptors
3) Ganglion Cells – neurons to synapse w/ _______________________________ 
bipolar cells and whose axons give rise to __________________________ optic 
nerve
; ganglion cells carry ______________________ visual info into brain
background image Photoreceptors have outer and inner segment; Outer contains several 
hundred______________ lamellae
Lamellae contain ___________________ photo-pigments which has 2 parts: 
__________ opsin (protein), ___________ retinol (lipid synthesized from Vitamin 
A)
Exposure to _________ light splits photo pigment into its two parts, producing 
_______________ receptor potential: hyperpolarization 
 Hyperpolarization decreases release of NT
Neural Circuitry in Retina
Photoreceptors and bipolar cells do not produce _______________________ 
Action Potentials!
They undergo Depolarization.
“Beyond the Retina” 
Ganglion cells form ___________________ optic nerve and leave Retina. Optic 
nerve crosses and forms ______________________ optic chiasm at base of brain.
At optic chiasm, axons from cells of inner halves of each retina (nose side
cross to  ____________________ contralateral side of brain.
Axons from outer halves of each retina do not cross. They stay on 
______________________ ipsilateral side. 
End result: Some info from right visual field is found on __________ left 
hemisphere of brain and vice versa.
“After Optic Chiasm…” Axons of ____________________________________ 
retinal ganglion cells travel to ________________________ LGN of Thalamus (this
is the FIRST synapse)
LGN neurons send their axons through pathway known as 
________________________________ Optic Radiations to 
____________________________ Primary Visual Cortex!
“Info Coding in Visual System: The Retina”
Fovea vs Peripheral Acuity: 
Why is there less visual acuity in ____________________________ periphery of 
Retina
 than in the Fovea? In the periphery, many _________________________ 
photoreceptors converge on SINGLE _____________________ ganglion cell. Since
there is _________________convergence of visual info from large area of retina 
 less acuity
“Types of Ganglion Cells”
Three types in frog Retina; two we care about:
1) “ON” cells : respond w/ __________________ excitatory burst when Retina is _____________ illuminated

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School: Hunter College of the City University of New York
Department: OTHER
Course: Neuroscience
Professor: NEsha Burghardt
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: PSYCH224, neuroscience, VisualSystem, retina, fovea, opticchiasm, rods, cones, bipolarcells, ganglioncells, LGN, Visualcortex, StriateCortex, V1, V2, ExtrastriateCortex, vitreoushumour, and eyestuff
Name: Lecture 10 notes/study guide in fill in blanks format
Description: Hi Class, Since it is too late to upload a study guide, I am posting notes from Lecture 10 in fill in blank format to be used as a study guide. I suggest supplementing this with photos from her slide for context.
Uploaded: 10/23/2017
3 Pages 39 Views 31 Unlocks
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