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UD - GEOL 107010 - Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UD - GEOL 107010 - Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide Hydrologic Cycle o Distribution of Earth’s Water Oceans: 97.2%  Glaciers and Ice: 2.15% Groundwater: 0.63% Lakes & Rivers: 0.010% Inland Seas and Saline Lakes: 0.008% Atmosphere: 0.001% Biosphere: 0.0001% 99.35% of Earth’s water is not a significant source of 
freshwater, which is the water we use for drinking, 
agriculture, and industry
o Hydrological cycle: the movement of water through Earth’s  reservoirs  Reservoirs: ocean, atmosphere, lakes/rivers/streams Major processes  Evaporation: water changing from liquid to gas 
(water vapor) by the sun’s heat
o Over ocean’s surface, there is more  evaporation than precipitation  Condensation: water changing from gas to liquid, 
due to water vapor rising into Earth’s lowermost 
atmospheric layer (troposphere) and being cooled
o Forms clouds Precipitation: condensed water vapor in troposphere
falling back to Earth’s surface as rain and snow
o Over land’s surface, there’s more precipitation than evaporation (even though there’s still 
much more evaporation and precipitation over 
the oceans, these numbers are relative)
Surface Runoff: water flowing down a land surface 
into oceans
o Excess precipitation over land running off into  oceans is equivalent to excess amount of 
evaporation over oceans, keeping water levels 
in the oceans normal
Rivers and Streams o Watershed (drainage basin): area over which precipitation  would be drained by rivers in that basin, if it were to fall Drainage divide separates watersheds Within watersheds, rivers and streams can flow in 
different patterns:
Dendritic: tributaries flow into one main channel
background image Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide o Created when rivers and streams flow through the same rock type Radial: rivers/streams flow away from a central 
o Created when there is a central high point  (imagine the tip of a pyramid), like a volcano Rectangular: rivers/streams bend at nearly right 
o Created when rivers/streams flow along  joints/fractures in rocks Trellis: rivers and tributaries flow parallel to each 
other for long distances
o Created when rivers flow in the valleys of  folded rocks o Longitudinal Profile & Gradient Longitudinal profile: plot of elevation of river from head 
(source) to mouth (end)
Gradient: change in elevation as function of distance
from head (source) to mouth (end of river)
o Gradient decreases from head to mouth
o Gradient = (elevation 1 – elevation 2) ÷ 
distance Discharge: amount of water flowing past given point
in given amount of time
o Discharge increases from head to mouth Competing Gradient and Discharge o The higher/steeper the gradient, the faster the river/stream velocity; since gradient decreases
downstream impact on velocity is to decrease
o Higher the discharge, faster the river/stream  velocity; since discharge increases from head 
to mouth impact on velocity is to increase
o Factors (gradient decreasing, discharge  increasing) “compete” in terms of impact on 
velocity from head to mouth
o Near head: high gradient is more important  factor; velocity is relatively high o Near mouth: high discharge is more important factor; velocity of stream is relatively high Competence and Capacity o We care about the velocity because it impacts  competence of the river/stream
background image Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide Competence: maximum grain size that 
the transport agent (water) can carry as 
a suspended load; higher the velocity, 
higher the competence
o Rivers/streams carry weathered rock material  in three major ways: 1. Bed and saltation load (along bottom 
or bouncing along bottom)
2. Suspended load (flowing along with 
3. Dissolved load (dissolved in water) o We care about discharge because it impacts  capacity of river/stream Capacity: maximum amount of material 
that transport agent (water) can carry as
a suspended load; higher the discharge, 
higher the capacity
o Floodplains and Meanders Floodplains: area over which river/stream meanders; can 
be covered during a flood
Meanders: bends or curves in river/stream; water 
velocities are lower on inside of meander and higher on 
outside of meander 
Inside of meanders: lower velocity, lower 
competence, deposition occurs
o Deposits called point bars Outside of meanders: higher velocity, higher 
competence, erosion occurs, can form ox-bow lakes 
(abandoned meanders)
Deltas: deposits that occur when river/stream flows into 
standing body of water; velocity of river/stream is 
decreased to zero
Alluvial Fans: deposits that occur when sudden decrease 
in gradient of river/steam occurs
*water is the most important transport agent* *ice is the 
best transport agent*
o Floods Flood: when a river/stream overflows its banks Natural levees: deposits that occur along banks of 
river/stream created during floods when 
river/stream overflows its banks; velocity decreases 
outside of channel, lower competence
background image Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide Common event; occurs yearly to every 2-3 years During the 2-3 year cycle, most of the erosion and 
transport occurs
X-year flood: only once in the next x years will a 
flood with discharge equal to, or greater than, that 
flood occur again (probable, not certain)
o X-year floods are called recurrence interval:  determined by measuring maximum discharge 
from river’s floods over long period of time
Groundwater o Water flowing beneath land surface
o Most abundant freshwater resource
o Flows slowly (cm or inches /day) in a direction determined by 
changes in hydraulic head (water pressure relative to elevation 
of land surface), from high to low head
Doesn’t always flow downhill o Water flow depends on two factors: Porosity: measure of amount of void spaces in material (%) Permeability: measure of “interconnectedness” of void 
spaces in material
o How Groundwater Moves Aquifers: material through which water can easily flow 
(ex. Sandstone—high porosity and permeability 
Unconfined aquifer: receives water from earth’s 
surface; characterized by zones of aeration (pores 
filled with air or partially filled with water/air) and 
zone of saturation (pores filled with water)
o Water can easily flow into it
o Water table: boundary between zone of 
aeration and zone of saturation Dynamic: can move up and down 
depending on availability of water
Perched aquifer: due to lens of 
sediments acting as an aquiclude, 
background image Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide secondary water table is located above 
water table
Aquicludes: material through which water cannot easily 
flow (ex. Shale—low permeability)
o Well: where groundwater is brought to surface Cone of depression: local lowering of water table around 
well due to removal (pumping) of groundwater to surface
Artesian wells: groundwater comes to surface without 
having to pump
Conditions: o Confined aquifer: aquifer between two  aquicludes o Confined aquifer is inclined
o Recharge area above height of well 
o Groundwater & Limestone If it encounters limestone (calcite), groundwater flowing 
through subsurface will leach (dissolve away) rock, 
forming caves
Stalactites: deposits formed on the top of caves Stalagmites: deposits formed on the floor of caves
background image Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide Sinkholes: collapse above where limestone has 
dissolved away 
Karst topography: formed in areas dominated by 
limestones where large amounts of leaching (dissolution) 
occur; characterized by irregular-shaped mountains with 
intervening valleys
o Salt-Water Encroachment Along coastlines where groundwater is withdrawn from 
wells; saltwater replaces fresh water and contaminates 
o Groundwater Contamination Types/Sources Landfills Septic tanks Mine Waste Waste Lagoons Chemical (gas) storage tanks Fertilizers Pesticides Salts on roads Potable water: drinkable with low risk of harm Dissolved materials (including contaminants) are typically 
measured in water in concentrations of parts per million 
(ppm) or parts per billion (ppb)
Some concentrations must be quite low for contaminants 
not to harm human health
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) >5 ppb harmful Trichloroethylene (TCE) >0.005 ppm harmful Nitrates >10 ppm harmful 6 Major Categories Defined by Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA)
Microorganisms Disinfectants Disinfection Byproducts Inorganic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Radionuclides Glaciers o Large masses of ice moving downhill under influence of gravity Move at average rates of 1 meter/day; can surge and move
much faster (several meters/day)
o Presently, glacial ice covers 10% of earth’s surface

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School: University of Delaware
Department: Science
Course: General Geology
Professor: John Madsen
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Geol107, geology107, geologyofdynamicearth, exam2, madsen, UD, Udel, and universityofdelaware
Name: Geology 107 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Comprehensive outlined study guide containing all exam material for Exam 2 of Geology 107. BASED COMPLETELY ON THE STUDY GUIDE OUTLINE ON SAKAI, therefore, you have all the study material you need right here!
Uploaded: 10/23/2017
34 Pages 78 Views 62 Unlocks
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