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UF - ANT 3513 - ANT3153 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UF - ANT 3513 - ANT3153 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Exam 2 Study Guide Modern anthropology on hunter-gatherers emphasizes diversity 95% of human history was spent as hunter-gatherers, and 80% of Native 
American history
Great time depth and geographical expanse as a practice The nature of resources influences the degree and type of mobility and 
technological organization used by a society (Binford 1980)
Forager Model – limited time-space variation in resources results in highly mobile 
settlement and simple technology
Collector Model – marked time-space variation results in a more stationary 
settlement, logistical procurement, and complex technology (such as storage)
Great Basin forager societies: great reliance on plant foods, “vertical” 
environment is seasonally patchy and diverse, historically low population densities 
and high mobility
Western slopes are moister and more productive The semiarid steppe environment of the Basin lowlands supports a variety of 
vegetation: sagebrush, agave, mesquite, yampa and other tubers, tule reed and 
other fibers
A belt of juniper and pinon (pine nuts) occupy the mid-range elevations 
Medicinal plants can be found at the highest elevations of the steppe A stereotypic view of Great Basin adaptation comes from Steward’s (1930s) study of
the Shoshone people
He claimed that the constraints of their natural environment conditioned the 
demography and economy of the Shoshone
This created a sparse, mobile population, that created ad hoc economic 
marriages and followed an ideology of pragmatism
Steward’s model was adopted for archaeological purposes by Jesse Jennings; he 
excavated at a site known as Danger Cave in Utah
This was a deep sequence of stratigraphy going back 10,000 years, with 
exceptional preservation (including finds of matting, seeds, and coprolites)
There are extraordinary preservation conditions in many caves, and they were often
used as stash sites for seasonal hunting technology
Jennings claimed that Great Basin adaptations had remained virtually unchanged 
since the Early Holocene; he called it a persistent Desert Culture
Jennings’s Desert Model (of the Shoshone people) is no longer accepted as valid
background image Recent efforts to collect more representative data: Research the full range of site types across different microenvironments to 
present a more holistic view of a culture
Regional surveys were a breakthrough in Great Basic archaeology (this was
done using systematic random sampling)
Galen Clark studied women’s collecting, processing, and storing of acorns in the 
Yosemite Valley (1904)
He was biased against acorns – thought they were a “starving” or “necessity”
Thought that women randomly selected acorn processing sites (no 
Bedrock mortars – circular holes or depressions 3-6 inches in diameter and 2-28 
inches deep, often conical in cross-section
Shallow mortars were used for initial acorn pounding, and deeper holes were 
used to grind coarse acorn flower into finer flour
Processing sites were chosen close to water and to black oak trees Grinding Rock State Park, CA – 1185 bedrock mortars, used around 3000 years 
Women determined the structure of the settlement pattern, based on where they 
chose to store and process acorns
Tom Jackson – bedrock mortars were chosen intentionally by women, in locations 
strategic for processing large amounts of acorns
Eastern Woodlands Archaic Period lasted from 11,500 – 3,200 BP Shell Mound Archaic – onset of freshwater shellfishing in the Midsouth and the 
lower Midwest around 8,300 cal. BP (ended around 3,200 BP)
Tons of shellfish in diet, created middens (maybe shellfish was not daily fare,
but collected and eaten in large numbers for feasts?)
Few postholes or evidence of sustained living areas, and tons of burials (were 
these sites places where people continuously lived?)
The climate in North America grew warmer and drier 8,500 years ago Grasslands expanded East, upland desiccation in lower Midwest and Midsouth lead 
to intensified use of riverine habitat (ecological push factor)
Increased runoff and sediment load in revers lead to flooding and backwater slough 
development with higher yield productivity for humans (ecological pull factor)
These push and pull factors are 2 explanations for the beginning of the Shell 
Mound Archaic Period

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School: University of Florida
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: North American Archaeology
Professor: Kenneth Sassaman
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Archaeology and Native Americans
Name: ANT3153 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover lectures from 9/27 up until the present. This material should be read in conjunction with chapters 6, 7, and 8 in the textbook. Good luck!
Uploaded: 10/23/2017
4 Pages 40 Views 32 Unlocks
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