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UF / Anthropology / ANT 3153 / What is the classic stallings fiber-tempered pottery?

What is the classic stallings fiber-tempered pottery?

What is the classic stallings fiber-tempered pottery?

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School: University of Florida
Department: Anthropology
Course: North American Archaeology
Professor: Kenneth sassaman
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Archaeology and Native Americans
Cost: 50
Name: ANT3153 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover lectures from 9/27 up until the present. This material should be read in conjunction with chapters 6, 7, and 8 in the textbook. Good luck!
Uploaded: 10/23/2017
4 Pages 29 Views 4 Unlocks
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Exam 2 Study Guide


What is the classic stallings fiber-tempered pottery?



Modern anthropology on hunter-gatherers emphasizes diversity

∙ 95% of human history was spent as hunter-gatherers, and 80% of Native  American history

∙ Great time depth and geographical expanse as a practice

The nature of resources influences the degree and type of mobility and  technological organization used by a society (Binford 1980)

Forager Model – limited time-space variation in resources results in highly mobile  settlement and simple technology

Collector Model – marked time-space variation results in a more stationary  settlement, logistical procurement, and complex technology (such as storage)

Great Basin forager societies: great reliance on plant foods, “vertical”  environment is seasonally patchy and diverse, historically low population densities  and high mobility


What is the function of animism?



Western slopes are moister and more productive

The semiarid steppe environment of the Basin lowlands supports a variety of  vegetation: sagebrush, agave, mesquite, yampa and other tubers, tule reed and  other fibers

∙ A belt of juniper and pinon (pine nuts) occupy the mid-range elevations  (“foothills”)

∙ Medicinal plants can be found at the highest elevations of the steppe If you want to learn more check out What is the subtropical jet stream?
If you want to learn more check out What is hydrogenation?

A stereotypic view of Great Basin adaptation comes from Steward’s (1930s) study of the Shoshone people

∙ He claimed that the constraints of their natural environment conditioned the  demography and economy of the Shoshone Don't forget about the age old question of What can limit population?

∙ This created a sparse, mobile population, that created ad hoc economic  marriages and followed an ideology of pragmatism


Who are the first people in north america to make pottery?



Steward’s model was adopted for archaeological purposes by Jesse Jennings; he  excavated at a site known as Danger Cave in Utah If you want to learn more check out Is culture a uniquely human product?

∙ This was a deep sequence of stratigraphy going back 10,000 years, with  exceptional preservation (including finds of matting, seeds, and coprolites)

There are extraordinary preservation conditions in many caves, and they were often used as stash sites for seasonal hunting technology

Jennings claimed that Great Basin adaptations had remained virtually unchanged  since the Early Holocene; he called it a persistent Desert Culture

Jennings’s Desert Model (of the Shoshone people) is no longer accepted as valid

Recent efforts to collect more representative data:

∙ Research the full range of site types across different microenvironments to  present a more holistic view of a culture

∙ Regional surveys were a breakthrough in Great Basic archaeology (this was done using systematic random sampling)

Galen Clark studied women’s collecting, processing, and storing of acorns in the  Yosemite Valley (1904)

∙ He was biased against acorns – thought they were a “starving” or “necessity” food

∙ Thought that women randomly selected acorn processing sites (no  intentionality)

Bedrock mortars – circular holes or depressions 3-6 inches in diameter and 2-28  inches deep, often conical in cross-section If you want to learn more check out What is another term for mitosis?

∙ Shallow mortars were used for initial acorn pounding, and deeper holes were  used to grind coarse acorn flower into finer flour

∙ Processing sites were chosen close to water and to black oak trees

Grinding Rock State Park, CA – 1185 bedrock mortars, used around 3000 years  ago

Women determined the structure of the settlement pattern, based on where they  chose to store and process acorns Don't forget about the age old question of How is rate obtained?

Tom Jackson – bedrock mortars were chosen intentionally by women, in locations  strategic for processing large amounts of acorns

Eastern Woodlands Archaic Period lasted from 11,500 – 3,200 BP

Shell Mound Archaic – onset of freshwater shellfishing in the Midsouth and the  lower Midwest around 8,300 cal. BP (ended around 3,200 BP)

∙ Tons of shellfish in diet, created middens (maybe shellfish was not daily fare, but collected and eaten in large numbers for feasts?)

∙ Few postholes or evidence of sustained living areas, and tons of burials (were  these sites places where people continuously lived?)

The climate in North America grew warmer and drier 8,500 years ago

Grasslands expanded East, upland desiccation in lower Midwest and Midsouth lead  to intensified use of riverine habitat (ecological push factor)

Increased runoff and sediment load in revers lead to flooding and backwater slough  development with higher yield productivity for humans (ecological pull factor)

∙ These push and pull factors are 2 explanations for the beginning of the Shell  Mound Archaic Period

South Atlantic Slope and Gulf: large portions of this land were underutilized between 9,500-8,200 cal. BP; then came the “intrusive” Morrow Mountain horizon around  8,300 cal. BP

Shell Mound Archaic (SMA) Core of Distinction – river-oriented settlement,  shellfishing and fishing, no separation between the living and the dead (cremation is rare), bannerstones

Carved and decorated bone pins North of the Ohio River and across the Midwest are distinct from plain pins found South of the Ohio River

There are at least 2 likely cases for ethnogenesis between interlopers and  indigenous people: Stallings (Benton + Morrow Mountain descendants) and  Frontenac (Lamoka + Laurentian)

Stallings Island, GA – 5000-3500 cal. BP circular compound of houses with a  central “plaza” of human interments

∙ Carinated pottery (better at containing liquids) – first people in North  America to make pottery  

∙ Carved and decorated bone and antler items (antler harpoon heads for  spearing sturgeon?)

∙ Early Stallings people headed up the Savannah River to harvest and store  hickory and acorn (4400-4300 cal. BP)

Classic Stallings Fiber-Tempered pottery – drag-and-jab punctuate, made by  communities of related women (sisters and their daughters)

∙ Elaborate serving vessels may have been used in extradomestic ritual (i.e.  group ceremonies)

Animism – a relational ontology that enables sustainability

∙ E.B. Tylor (19th c.): animism is “primitive”

∙ Tim Ingold (modern): animism helps perpetuate life

Paleo-Arctic – ca. 10,000-7,000 BP, poorly known ancestral complexes, but the  material cultures shows cultural roots in Siberia

∙ Associated with wedge-shaped cores which were used to produce  microblades (probably used as barbs for hunting weapons)

Ocean Bay and Kodiak – 7500-1000 BP, centered on Kodiak Island, South of the  Alaskan Peninsula in the Pacific; tradition focused on marine mammal hunting,  salmon fishing, and caribou hunting

Kodiak – first use of the ulu, ground slate lance blades, elaborate mortuary rituals  (“trophy” skulls), pecked stone lamps with human and animal effigies; these people  also experienced a surge in population size

Aleutian – 4500-200 BP, earliest known occupation of the Aleutian Islands is at the  Anangula site (8000 BP), chipped stone tools were used to hunt marine mammals  and sea fish

Poverty Point (PP) mounds erected ca. 3600-3200 BP, 200 hectares, 1.2 million  cubic feet of mounded earth

PP standard macro-unit of measurement: 86.63 m (52x Standard Unit – SU – of  1.666 m aka wingspan/fathom)

PP appears parochial, but inventory of nonlocal goods reflects cosmopolitan society ∙ Collection of 7 mounds and 6 nested concentric ridges

PP Mound A erected ca. 3200 BP in less than 3 months but a labor force of about  2000 people with a support staff of ~1000 more

∙ Soapstone cache of 200-300 broken vessels emplaced in a pit around the  same time, on the eve of abandonment of PP

∙ This building and then abandonment of PP has been called “history in  reverse” by T.R. Kidder

A period of cool, wet climate set in around 3200 BP

Mound A was placed over wetland, erected quickly and abandoned shortly after

∙ Flooding around that time redirected the local river away from this site ∙ Kidder argues that this is a reenactment of the “earth diver” creation  myth

Watson Brake, Louisiana – ca. 5500 BP, 11 mounds arranged in an ellipse,  biggest complex of its time, made use of the same SU as PP

Silver Glen Run Complex – landscape of shell mounds and ridges, much of it  mined in the 20th century

∙ Pottery distributed spatially by decoration

∙ Half of the pots from big mounds made from nonlocal clay (from SW Florida)

Coastal “shell rings” – ca. 6000 cal. BP on, most date from 4700-3200 cal. BP,  found on the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts, plus along the St. John’s River

Read chapters 6, 7, and 8 from the text book, to accompany these notes. GOOD LUCK!

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