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Psych 200-Exam 2 Robert Nemeth

by: Michelle wilde

Psych 200-Exam 2 Robert Nemeth Psychology 200

Michelle wilde
GPA 3.64
Research Methods
Robert Neemeth

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About this Document

Study Guide with Answers for Psychology Research Methods for Non-experimental Research including topics: Studying Behaviour, Measurement Concepts, Observational Research and Survey Research.
Research Methods
Robert Neemeth
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle wilde on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 200 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Robert Neemeth in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.


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Date Created: 08/27/15
PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth Exam 2 Study Guide Overview The format of the exam will consist of 22 and 2 bonus multiplechoice questions worth 25 points each 55 points total and 3 shortanswer questions worth 5 points each 15 points total The exam is worth 70 points total Exam questions will emphasize both class and textbook material including any Videos discussions activities or assignments conducted in class Thought Questions These questions are intended to get you thinking about some of the larger issues Within Unit 2 of Research Methods Nonexperimental Research However they do not absolve you of the responsibility to prepare adequately for the exam Some of the questions on the exam may not be specifically covered in this study guide Do not rely on this study guide alone Studying Behavior 1 What is a variable What is meant by levels of variables Define and explain the difference between quantitative variables versus qualitative variables V any event situation B or individual characteristic that varies 2 or more levels or values Levels EG control experiment would have two levelscontrol and experimental Qualitative description can39t be addeddata are measures of 39types39 and may be represented by a name symbol or a number code Qualitative can be added data are measures of values or counts and are expressed as numbers 2 Identify and describe measured manipulated and response variables Explain the differences between these three types of variables Measured variables Dependent variableWhat we are changing preexhisting charactsituation Manipulated independent variablesWhat we are trying to find outcreates situationsconditions Responsedependent V outputoutcome of study What we want to predictforecastB in relation to manipulatedmeasured V eg memory 3 Define the concept of an operational definition in research methods What is the difference between the conceptual level and the concrete level of variables of a V is the set of procedures used to measuremanipulate it Conceptual vs concrete abstract to specific 4 Compare and contrast nonexperimental versus experimental research designs PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth Experimental direct manipul and control of V then measure response Non relationship studied by making observmeasure V as they exist natural Goals Ndescriptive association Ecausal Method observ surverys case studies vs experiments manipula Adv real world Bdata vs create whatever situation cause and effect ve usually no cause and effect vs artificial 3rd variable 5 Explain the different types of relationships variables may show linear and complex complex curvilinear rela Increase in values of 1 v are accompanied by systematic increases and decreases in the values of the other varibale nonmonotonic function 6 In nonexperimental research explain the concern over the causal direction between variables Be sure to explain what a thirdvariable problem is and how it might affect causal interpretations of the relationship between variables difficult to determine which v causes the other knowledge of correct direction of cause and effectimplications of research findings 3rd V danger that no direct causal relat exists any v that is extraneous to the 2 varibales may be responsible for the observed relation alternative explanation to relation reduce overall validity of the study 7 Explain how experimental research allows for causal interpretations in how variables are related make sure you understand the concept of a confounding variable confounding v know that an uncontrolled 3rd v is operating if 2 v are confoundedintertwined so cannot determine which v is operating in a given situation 8 Compare and contrast types of validity Internal ability to draw conclusions about causal rela from the results of a studywhen strong inferences can be made that 1 V caused changes in the other v External the extent to which the results can be generalised to other pop and settings Construct refers to the adequacy of the operational definitions of v Measurement Concepts 1 Define reliability and differentiate between true scores on a measure versus measurement error Reliabilityrefers to the consistency or stability of a measure of B TS real score on the v ME an unreliable measure of intelligence contains considerable measurement errornot accurate of true intelligence 2 How can a researcher assess reliability Contrast the different methods used to assess reliability Researchers use careful measurement procedures making multiple measurements PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth Testretest is assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time Internal consistency assessment using responses only 1 point in time all items measure the same Vshould yield similar or consistent results Splithalf correlation of the total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other half Two halves are created by random dividing the items into two parts Cronbach Alpha average of all possible splithalf reliability coefficients based on the average of all the interitem correlation coefficients and no of items in the measure Interrater extent to which raters agree in the observ 3 What is the difference between reliability and accuracy R is clearly importantresearchers develop measures of B tells us about measurement error not whether we have a good measure of v of interest Accuracy consistency and stability of test scores across situations A refers to the correctness of the mean value 4 Identify and explain the different ways in which construct validity can be assessed Provide examples 1 Facecontent of the measure appears to re ect the construct being measured 2Content content of measure is linked to the universe of content that defines the construct 3 Predictivescores on the measure predict B on a criterion measured at a future time 4 Concurrent scores on the measure are related to a criterion measured at the same time 5Convergent scores on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct 6Discriminant scores on the measure are not related to other measures that are theoretically different 5 What is reactivity and why does it matter in research potential problem when measuring B A measure is said to be reactive if awareness of being measured changes an individual39s B Measures of B vary in terms of their potential activity 6 Identify and explain different measurement scales Provide examples Nominal categories with no numeric scales can39t be manipulated EG MENW OMEN Ordinal Rank ordering numeric values limited Intervals betw items not known EG RESTAURANT STAR RATINGS Interval exact differences between the values No true zero EG TEMPERATURE Ratio Zero indicates absence of v measured EG Weight Observational Research 1 Compare and contrast the different types of designs in Observational Research Nat Obser natural habitatidentify and describe relat among naturally occuring B Participation Obser participants in normal situation record hard to observ B Structured obser intervene to cause hard to observ situations and record B 2 What is the goal of observational research ie why use different sampling methods Differentiate between systematic and random sampling and time and situation sampling including special cases Time sampling Random event sampling systematic Situation location and circumstances subject sampling 3 How are behaviors recorded in observational research Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative records Qualitative focuses on ppl behaving in natural settings and describing their world I ntheir own words Narrative comprehensive descripition of obers written audio etc Field Notes selective description of Bevents of interest Quantitative focus on more specific Bthat can be easily quantifiablecounted PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth Coded B frequencyduration of B Rating sclaes ratings of Bevents on some psych dimension 4 Explain what kinds of biases and errors may occur in observational research Subj ectParticipant Reactivity Demand Characteristicssubtle cue that experimenter gives intentional or accidental Experimenter expects P to B or if they know the hypothesis of experiment Social Desirability Observer BiasExpectancy effects changing criteria of observ over timenot consistent Observer Driftresearchers working togethersame resultscorrupt the experiment 5 Identify and describe case study designs and archival research designs Case Studyobserv metho that provieds a description of an individual Archival using previously compiled info to answer RQ Survey Research 1 Identify the goals of survey research common and important method of studying B 2 What types of information are typically obtained in survey questionnaires attitudes and beliefs facts and demographics B 3 Differentiate between the types of questions that may be used in survey questionnaires What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of question Double barrelled 2 things at once difficult to answertaps two potentially very different attitudes Loadedlead people to responding 1 way lead to bias conclusions Yeanay simply agreeing or disagreeing with statement Closed vs openended easier to code vs takes time to categorise and codemore costly Number of Response Altern allows people to express themselves 4 What are the different ways in which rating scales can be constructed Graphic 100mm line descriptions on each end Semantic differential scalemeaning of concepts series of bipolar adjectives using 7 point scale Nonverbal eg face scales 5 Identify and describe different problems in survey research participant response biases survey administration and question wording QW unfamiliar jargon vague terms gramatical erros misleading info Survey Admotivation boring may not understand q39s Response Bias the lower the response rate the more bias Incentives 6 Identify and describe different methods for sampling in surveys including representative and nonrepresentative methods Represen Probability lSimple random picked randomly may miss if small group present 2Stratifiedmore complicated pop divided into subgroup and then ramdom sampling 3Clusteridentify groups of individuals then sample from them after cluster chosen all individuals are sampled Nonrepren Haphazardany participants near Purposive ppl who meet predetermined criterion Quotachoose sample that re ects the numerical composition of various subgroups in pop PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth 7 Identify and describe different survey research designs Cross Sectional Desigh one target sample is surveyed once easiest less work Successive Independent Samples 2 or more samples are surveyed at different points in time 1 time but addressing same Q39s overtime Eg freshmen class PanelLongitudinal Study same individuals surveyed at different points in time difficult to get in touch ppl drop outdata useless


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