Psych 200-Exam 3 Study Guide
Psych 200-Exam 3 Study Guide Psychology 200
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle wilde on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 200 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Robert Neemeth in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth Exam 3 Study Guide Experimental Design 1 What conditions need to be present for an experiment to have high internal validity Certainty the experiment found cause and effect lTemporal precedence causal V should come first followed by the effect 2 Covariationneed to have relation Between V 3 elimination of alternative explanations 2 Describe the most basic experimental design Reexamine the conditions of internal validity with the most basic experimental design How does the most basic experiment allow for causal interpretations of the effect of the IV on the DV Has 2 va IVmin 2 levelsexp and control group and DV Random assign to prevent systematic biases 2 conditions one present for one group not the other or two different amounts of IV 2 different qualitative conditions Same DV measure is usedcomparison possible No confounding v equivalent before IV introducedthen differences in groups based on IV High Internal validity 3 If there are concerns about whether the groups in a between groups design are equivalent what could be done to insure equivalence Random assignmentprevents systematic biases and characteristics equivalent 4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of giving a pretest in an experimental design How can a researcher determine whether a pretest has had an impact on the dependent variable Pretest ascertain that groups were equivalent at the beginning Participants need to be identified before the experiment Makes researchers focus on change from pretest to posttest Extent of change within each individual can be measured Drop out factorwhether attrition is a plausible alternative explanation Time consuming awkward to administer in the context can sensitize participantsfigure out the hypothesisreact differently Disguised by administering it in a different situation embed it in set of irrelevant measures Posttestonly and pretestposttest design Half participants receive only the posttest etcIf pretest had no effect then results same for both 5 What different ways can a researcher assign subjects to conditions in experimental designs Why would a researcher choose one method of assignment over another Independent groups design different participants assignedprevent any systematic biases Groups can be considered equivalent in participant characteristics Repeated measure designsame individuals in all conditions P repeatedly measured on the DV after being exposed to each condition PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth 6 How do repeated measures designs differ from independent groups betweensubj ects designs Why would a repeated measures design be used instead of an independent groups design Fewer participants when scarce or costlyprefered Extremely sensitive to nding statistically significant differencesIndividual differences can be seen and explained can see effect of IV Easier to separate 7 Are there any disadvantages to using a repeated measures design Are there any special procedures that need to be used in a repeated measures design to insure internal validity Order effectorder of condition could affect the DV PracticeLearning effect Fatigue effectresult in deterioration in performance Carryover effecteffect of rst condition to in uence the response to the second Complete counterbalancing all possible orders are included Latin Squaresza limited set of orders constructed to ensure that all conditions appear at each ordinal position each condition precedes and follows each condition one time Controls for most order effects without having to use all possible orders Conducting Experiments 1 Who do the research participants tend to be in most psychological research Why are these samples typically used and does it matter College studentsconvenience sample nothing wrongmay affect generalising results for large population 2 Explain the difference between straightforward versus staged manipulations in experiments Provide examples from different experiments and what makes the manipulations straightforward or staged Stanley Milgram used the term technical illusion to describe research in social psychology How is that related to straightforward vs staged manipulations Sfrelative simplicity by presenting writtenverbal or visual materialInstructions and stimulus presentations EGzHotel signHelp save env35 Join your fellow guests44 Staged Manipulations stage events in order to manipulate the IV successfully Used cause sereaserches trying to create some psychological state Asch line testconfederate If same or not and conformity 3 Why does manipulation strength matter Are there any problems with making the strength of the manipulation over the top Strong manipul Maximises the differences between groups and increases the change that IV will have a statistically significant effect on DV Extenal validity of study may involve situation that rarely occurs in real world Ethics strong as possible within the bounds of ethics PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth 4 What is the purpose of a manipulation check Give an example of how it is used and why to check whether the manipulation worked help prove and verify that the manipulated variable is having the desired effect fight to see if real violentnonviolent video games whether believable or not 5 Besides manipulation checks researchers sometimes run pilot studies before they run the full experiment What is the purpose of a pilot study reveal whether participants understand the instructions total experimental setting seems plausible whether any confusing questions are being asked 6 What types of dependent measures are typically used in experimental designs Why do researchers need to worry about the sensitivity of dependent measures Self report attitudes judgements Behavioural measures direct observations of B Physiological recordings of responses of the body eg EEG EMG to detect differences betw Groups CEILING participants quickly reach the max Performance level FLOOR task is so difficult hardly anyone can perform well 7 Why is the control groupcondition important in experimental research Describe different types of control groups and why they would be used Control groupsdon39t receive any treatment Placebo surgar pill vs antidepressant see if a psychological thing or actual change Yoked control 2 participants are matched and joined together operant conditioning learned helplessness 8 What are demand characteristics and how do they in uence the interpretation of an experiment s effects any feature of an experiment that might inform P of the purpose of the study They can form expectations about the study 9 What methods can be employed to handle experimenter bias effects in experimental research since aware of purpose of study can develop expectations about how P should respondcan bias results training practice behaving consistently with all P Run all conditions simultaneously so experimenter39s B same for all P Procedures automated Experim Unaware of hyp single blind vs double blind Complex Experimental Designs 1 How can basic experimental designs be expanded hint there are two basic ways Increasing no Of levels of IV Increasing no Of IV 2 What is the simplest complex design 2x2 factorial design All levels of each IV are combined with all levels of the other IV 3 If an experiment is described as a 2 x 2 design What does that mean Draw a table to show what this design looks like 2 IV 2 levels PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth 4 How many effects are there in a 2 x 2 design What numbers do you need to consider when evaluating these different effects hint marginal means vs cell means 7 1 Interaction Effect Main Effect 1 Main Effect 2 Marginal MeansMain effect 5 Give both a verbal description and a visual description as in the 2 x 2 table of what an interaction is Interaction bet IV indicates that the effects of 1 IV is different at different levels of the other IV 6 We learned in class that interactions qualify main effects What does that mean Provide an example you can use the example from our own bizarre imagery study Interaction bet IV indicates that the effects of 1 IV is different at different levels of the other IV Differences among the levels of one Factor depend on the levels on the other Factor Difference here refers to direction and size of the effect quotIt Depends Effectquot there is an interaction betw Common and bizarre imagery but only with intention to learn Effect only when incidental 7 How many effects would you need to consider if you added just one more variable with the same number of levels ie a 2 x 2 x 2 design 7 effects 3 way interaction 3 2 way interactions IV1 X IV3 IV1 x IV2 IV2 x 1V3 ME 1 ME 2 ME 3 8 What does it mean when a complex design is described as all between all within or mixed Between different groups of participants will be assigned to each of the 4 conditions Within same individuals will participate in all conditions Mixed combination of the two includes both within and between subject variables Participants are also divided into two groups One group is the focus of the experiment experimental group and one group is a base line control group Single Case QuasiExperimental and Developmental Designs 1 What is the relationship between single case studiesquasiexperimental designs and applied research Single developed from a need to determine whether an expt Mnipulation had an effect on a single research participant Measured over time during baseline control period Then moved to treatment periods QuasiexperimentalAddress the need to study the effect of an IV in settings which the control features of a true experimental designs cannot be achieved AR conducted to address issues where there are practical problems and potential solutions 2 What is the origin of single case smalln research BF Skinneroperant conditioning 3 Why are single case studies conducted How do researchers know that a treatment has had an effect on behavior seen in clinical counseling educational settings Need to determine whether experiment Manip Had an effect on a single research participant B of P measured over time using baseline control period manipulation then introduced change in B from baseline to treatment evidence for the effectiveness of the manipulation 4 Why would multiple baseline designs be used in smalln designs effectiveness of the treatment is showed when B changes only after manipul is introducedchanges must be observed under multiple circumstances 5 What is program assessment and how does it go just beyond whether a program is merely effective at doing what it is supposed to be doing involve collaboration of researchers service providers and possible clients of the program to determine if proposed program does address the needs of target population in appropriate wayspresent a plausible and feasible plan PSYC 200 Research Methods in Psychology Professor Nemeth Need assessment surveys Process evaluation observational designs outcome evaluation and efficiency assessment archival data observ Designs quasiexperiment 6 Why are quasiexperiment designs conducted Examine the impact of an IV on DV but causal inference is much more difficult because lacks important features of true experiments such as random assign To conditions 7 What threats to internal validity exist in quasiexperimental designs design fails to take into consideration alternative explanations no random assignment Maturation effect any changes that occur systematically over time History caused by virtually any confounding event that occurs at the same time as the manipulation Instrumentation instrument changes over time May become fatigued 8 If you have nonequivalent groups what benefit does adding a pretest have on the interpretation of the results know the pretest scores see whether the groups were the same on the pretest If not equivalent we can look at changes in scores from pretest to posttest 9 When would an interrupted time series design be used How does a control series design differ design uses several waves of observation before and after the introduction of the independent treatment variable X this type of design works best if the treatment independent variable is expected to have an immediate marked effect and if the treatment is introduced implemented all at once in all relevant situations control some kind of control group
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