Stud Terms (Exam 2)
CHAPTER 5 (Livingston)
Religious Ritual An agreedon and formalized pattern of ceremonial movements and verbal expressions carried out in a sacred context.
Mantras A sacred sound of one syllable or more.
Rites of Passage Rituals connected significantly with the critical events in the life of individuals.
Liminal Stage: Also called “Threshold”, Transitional one and represents antistructure. The initiate is stripped of status, symbolized by uniform dress, loss of rank and submissiveness.
Communities: Spontaneous bond of communion between members of a society.
Bar Mitzvah when Jewish boys become 13 years old, they become accountable for their actions and become a bar mitzvah. A girl becomes a bat mitzvah at the age of 12 according to Orthodox and Conservative Jews, and at the age of 13 according to Reform Jews.
Tonsure The rite of clipping the hair or shaving the head to denote admission of a candidate to a religious order, often to a life as a monk.
Society puberty rites Have to do with the transitions from the asexual world of childhood to an adult society that is differentiated by sexual roles.
Lifecrisis rite Undertaken to meet a specific crisis in the life of an individual or a community such as an illness, miscarriage, failure in the hunt or drought.
We also discuss several other topics like Does american dream actually exist in country that no longer considers itself exceptional?
Shamans Medicine men.
Exorcism is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, they are believed to have possessed. If you want to learn more check out How is the sarcolemma excited and how does that excitation leads to an increase in intracellular calcium?
Seasonal and Calendar rites Are closely associated with the rhythmic changes of nature; with the cycles of the sun and moon; with winter spring, summer, and autumn; as well as with seed time and harvest.
New Year (Akitu) Festival Celebrated at the beginning of each year at the vernal equinox, during the first 12 days of the month of Nisan (MarchApril)
Propitiation Becoming favorably inclined, to appease or conciliate another. (Taylors first function of sacrifice)
Expiration (Atonement) Defilement or sinful transgression. Directed at the removal of pollution, release from which, it is believed, can free the community and the individual from deadly contagion.
Stud Terms (Exam 2)
Scapegoat Someone who is blamed for someone else’s errors and who bears the burden of blame, but this is a distortion of its original intention.
Yom Kippur The holiest day of the Jewish year. Day of Atonement
Sacrament change the status or condition of the participants. If you want to learn more check out What are the different layers of the earth's atmosphere?
CHAPTER 9 (Livingston)
Cosmology an account of the emergence or creation of world order.
ReAtum Appears on the “primeval hillock,” produced by the silt of the flooding Nile River.
Kojiki & Nihongi Include most of the themes we have surveyed so far and we will concentrate on the crucial political interpretation of this story.
Izanagi & Izanami The 8th generation of the gods production. Create Japanese islands.
Amaterasu Come the Japanese emperors, the divine source of political authority, and the divine, imperial destiny of the Japanese people.
Enuma Elish A classic example of a cosmogony involving conflict and the bringing of order out of chaos.
Ti’amat The sea; and Mimma, their son, the mist. Don't forget about the age old question of In mass communication, framing means what?
Marduk “whose strength is mighty” (son)
Daoist cosmogony religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao We also discuss several other topics like What triggers suicide?
Creatio ex nihilo Creation of b y decree or out of nothing.
Anaxogoras Introduced a radically new principle called Nous.
Nous Does not create matter, rather, it sets matter in motion. Is a kind of Deus ex machina.
Platos Cosmogony (Tiemaeus) The material world of becoming required some eternal cause that hae called the divine Demiurge or Craftsman.
The Forms The other coeternal reality.
Priestly (P) writer Wrote one of the distinct accounts of the Creation in Genesis. Found in Chapters 12:4a.
Stud Terms (Exam 2)
Jahwist (J) and the Elohist writers Wrote the other distance account found in Chapters 2:4b 25 who represent the southern kingdom of Judah and the northern kingdom of Israel.
Jainism A religion that began in an ancient India as a protest against Hindu ritualism.
The Anthropic principle The recognition by some physicists of the extraordinary fine tuning observed and required to explain our natural world as we know it.
Creation Science The attempt to harmonize the mythic cosmogonies of the past with modern scientific cosmogony is not a fruitful endeavor. Don't forget about the age old question of What makes biological catalysts specific?
Intelligent Design The legal and theological objections to Creation science largely discredited the movement except for those in America who continued to insist on the scientific accuracy of the biblical texts.
CHAPTER 12: (LIVINGSTON)
Deontological ethics ethics viewed as the elucidation of a morality that is necessary, obligatory, and unconditional, irrespective of conditions or consequences.
Teliological or utilitarian ethics Specifies forms or moral behavior by individuals or communities that contribute most effectively to the greatest overall happiness for the greatest number of persons.
Virtue Ethics Opposes a strict utilitarianism or consequentialism.
Cosmic or Natural Law Holds that human moral action is grounded in the essential structure or reality itself.
Dao road or pathway
Mencius the normal philosopher who developed a more idealistic theory or morality than did Confucius.
Hsin A natural, innate capacity for moral discrimination.
St. Thomas Aquinas The greatest of the Roman Catholic teachers, wrote that “Natural Law is nothing other than the participation of eternal law in rational creatures.”
Contraception The artificial interruption of human fertility, as intrinsically immoral interfering with the natural telos, or goal or sexual intercourse.
Charisma The possession of a spiritual gift with special, often extraordinary, endowments.
Stud Terms (Exam 2)
Bodhisattva The central hero and moral exemplar or pattern in the Mahayana school or Buddhism in East Asia. “A being whose mind and effort is directed toward enlightenment.”
Avalokitesvara The Bodhisattva singled out as the perfect embodiment of compassion and is perhaps the most popular figure in East Asian Buddhist pantheon.
Mohandas K. Gandhi “Great Soul”, the religious leader and political and social reformer of modern India. Taught Satyagraha.
Satyagraha “Soulforce” or “force which is born of truth and the love of nonviolence” Amos A shephard from Tekoa, a village near Bethlehem.
“routinization of charisma” The moral authority of the prophets’ oracles is passed on to future generations through their canonization in holy scripture.
Rabbinic or Talmudic Judaism the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Shari’a The Arabic name for Divine Law. Suggests the “right path” to the source of water.
Figh Human knowledge of understanding of Divine Law. Also relates to Islamic Jurisprudence, or the legal rules established by the Islamic jurists through their pious scholarship.
Sunni Islam Jurists acknowledged that no ruling could be an infallible statement of Divine Law.
Qur’an Contains many references to God’s laws and commands.
Sunna of The Prophet or Hadith The record of his words and action, thus became a second source.
Ulana Or learned, and the fuqaha.
Stud Terms (Exam 2)