i Plant hormones
i Adventitious roots initiation
ii Auxin concentration affects root, bud, and stem growth variably b Cytokinins
i Zeatin is the most common cytokinin in plants
ii Site of biosynthesis:
1 Primarily in root tips
ii Chemical response is dose dependent
1 To induce shoot growth in plant tissue culture
ii (high cytokinin/low auxin=shoot growth)
iii (Low cytokinin/high auxin=root growth)
i Gaseous hormone
ii Site of biosynthesis:
1 Most tissues/cells in response to stress (especially during
senescence to ripening)
b Abscisic acid (ABA) If you want to learn more check out What is the multi-variable chain rule?
i Site of biosynthesis:
1 Mature leaves, especially in response to water stress
ii Stress hormone for plants
iii Water stress causes an increase in ABA synthesis and it causes the stomata to close
iv ((AVP1 stimulates auxin polar transport which stimulates root growth))
i Site of biosynthesis:
1 Young tissues of shoots and in developing seeds
ii They elongate shoots
iii Cell expansion
iv Seed germination
v A plants response to a particular hormone will be species dependent ii Plant growth regulators We also discuss several other topics like What is the considerable number of male witches?
a Human made synthetic hormones
ii Plant chemicals
a Primary vs secondary metabolites (biochemicals)
1 Directly involved in normal growth, development, and
2 Occur in all plant cells We also discuss several other topics like What is the arterial system?
3 Three classes:
a Carbohydrates (sugars)
i Simple organic compounds
ii C, H, O (with H and O in 2:1 ratio)
iii Storage and transport of energy (e.g., glucose,
iv Structural components of cells (e.g., cellulose, chitin)
and in RNA/DNA (ribose, deoxyribose)
v Plants are carbohydrate-rich organisms
i Energy storage - triglycerides in seeds
ii Structural lipids - membrane lipids (phospholipids)
iii Cuticular lipids (waxes and cutin make up the cuticle) iv You get the most energy from a fat molecule
i Have a C-N (Carbon - nitrogen) backbone
ii All enzymes are proteins (= catalysts that carry out all of the chemical reactions involved in plant growth)
iii Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) are translated into amino acids and then into proteins
iv Transcription- the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
v Translation - the actual synthesis…??? If you want to learn more check out John bowlby’s attachment theory was based on which studies?
vi Are chains of amino acids
1 Not directly involved in normal growth, development, and reproduction
2 Occur usually only in special, differentiated cells
3 Are species-specific, not all plant species produce all secondary metabolites
4 Absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but may impair long-term survivability, fecundity, or other functions
5 Many of these are highly toxic and are often stored in specific vesicles or in the vacuole
6 Important in defense against herbivory
7 Three major categories:
i A group of nitrogen-containing compounds
ii Many are poisonous to humans in small doses We also discuss several other topics like How many atria are in the human heart?
iii Morphine, atropine, and cocaine are (were) used in medicine
iv Plant defense
i Species-specific production in plants
ii Astringent taste (slightly acidic)
iii Tannis, flavonoids (anthocyanins)
iv Plant defense, attracting pollinators (anthocyanins), and seed dispersal (flavor)
i The largest class of secondary metabolites -- over
30,000 have been described
ii Essential 'oils' (e.g. flavor, fragrance) cartenoids
(yellow and orange pigments)
iii Plant growth, plant defense (e.g. resin, latex)
iv Plants talk to eachother apparently (watch out vegans) v Fungal organsims are more of a physical
communication rather than a gaseous communications
vi If you don’t know that the bluebonnet is the texas
state flower either you're not from texas or you're a
dumbass. Also if you didn’t know that you cant pick
them you're a dumbass.
ii Plant genetics If you want to learn more check out What is the component of the basic product consisting of the fundamental benefits?
a Genetics is the study of genes.
b To explore the characteristics that are inherited
c To understand how the characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another generation.
d Why study genetics of plants?
i To meet the food, clothing, shelter, and other plant-related demands of a growing population.
ii Genetic modification of crops: quality and quantity
iii Insect and disease resistant cultivars
iv Enviromental stress resistant cultivars (against stress, salt, drought) v To conserve natural genetic resources from:
2 Changing environmental conditions
ii To understand evolutionary processes
1 What causes a new species to evolve
2 What is the level of genetic differences among individuals, species, families,… and kingdoms.
b Plant genetic resources
i Basis of global food security
ii Consists of diversity of seeds and planting material of traditional varieties and modern cultivars, crop wild relatives, and other wild plant species
iii Used as food, feed, fiber, clothing, shelter, aesthetics, and energy b Cultivated plant species
i Less than 10% (~35,000) of all plant species are cultivated ii ~30 crops provide 95% of human food energy needs
iii Four of which (rice, wheat, maize, potato) are responsible for more than 60% of our energy intake
iv For global food security, it will be crucial to maintain a high genetic diversity within these crops to cope with changing environmental stresses