Chapter 2- Study Guide
Chapter 2- Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Thursday August 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 616 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/27/15
Study Guide for Chapter 2 Revised Doing Social Psychology Research OLEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 20 00 Describe the process of generating research ideas in social psychology searching the relevant literature and developing hypotheses Understand the differences between applied and basic research pp 2728 Questions can come from anywhere tragic events such as a police shooting of an unarmed man to perplexing trends the lack of women being represented in math and science elds can prompt research questions A researcher might come up with a question from their own life Ideas can also come from reading research studies that have already been published answering one question in the study might have raised others You can nd relevant literature to your questions from textbooks like ours from scholarly websites and from electronic databases like those offered through Milner Library A hypothesis can be formed from a hunch you have about the question by making an explicit speci c testable prediction Basic research just wants to gain understanding about human behavior while applied research is meant to better understand naturally occurring events as well as contribute to the solution of social problems 00 Distinguish between hypotheses and theories and between conceptual variables and operational definitions pp 2831 A theory is an organized set of ideas or principles used to explain observed phenomena while a hypothesis is a speci c testable prediction about the conditions or outcomes of an event When a researcher is rst developing their hypotheses they will have vague ideas about the variables in an experiment these are called conceptual variable The speci c procedure for manipulating controlling or measuring one of these conceptual variables is called an operational de nition 00 Explain selfreport and observational research practices including the advantages and disadvantages of each pp 3134 Selfreport when participants disclose their thoughts feelings desires and actions whether it is through interviews surveys or some other form of asking questions Advantages Gives researcher access to an individual39s beliefs and perceptions and is a relatively cheap way to collect information Disadvantages Not always accurate can be misleading because people lie or are unaware of how they39d actually act in certain situations Wordings of the questions can bias results Participants might have faulty recall which leads to inaccurate information Observation When the researcher observes the behavior of participants might range from simple to complex behaviors of interest Advantages avoids the sometimesfaulty recollections and distorted interpretations of our own behavior that can occur in selfreport Disadvantages Participants are often aware that they are being observed and might act different than if they weren39t being watched they might want to present themselves in a more favorable light Researchers might have to observe very subtle behaviors such as eye contact 00 OUnderstand the usefulness of traditional research methodologies such as archival studies and surveys as well as explain the potential contributions of new technologies to contemporary social psychology research pp 3436 Newer technologies are able to measure things like heart rate hormone levels sexual arousal and other physiological responses Eye tracking technology can record eye contact reaction rate and other things far more accurately than a researcher could do with the naked eye We now also have noninvasive brain imaging technology which allows researchers to view the activity of the brain while the subject is thinking making decisions and responding to stimuli These high tech methods are fantastic but they39re also pretty expensive Archival studies using data sets that were previously collected and recorded is far less expensive since all you need is access to the data set It s great to be able to put another researchers work to a good purpose instead of taking the time and money to collect another set of data Surveys are also a cheaper option for research when you don39t need such precise physiological information With these two methods you can also get a lot more data pointsparticipants since they don39t have to come into a laboratory With surveys you can send out surveys to people across the country or even across the globe 00 0Contrast correlational research with descriptive research Define the correlation coefficient and explain what it means to say that two variables are negatively correlated positively correlated or uncorrelated Summarize the advantages and one major disadvantage of correlational research designs pp 3638 00 0Explain the importance of control and random assignment in experimental research Differentiate random sampling from random assignment as well as an independent variable from a dependent variable pp 3842 00 Explain the importance of the following terms with regard to experimental research design statistical significance internal validity and external validity pp 4247 00 Discuss the function of ethics in social psychological research including the use of deception and confederates Describe the roles of institutional review boards informed consent and debriefing in protecting the welfare of human participants Summarize the competing points of view about the role of values in science pp 4749 Key Terms to Know applied research p 29 Research whose goal is to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to nd solutions to practical problems basic research p 29 Research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior often by testing hypotheses based on a theory bogus pipeline technique p 31 A procedure in which research participants are falsely led to believe that their responses will be veri ed by an infallible lie detector confederate p 45 Accomplice of an experimenter who in dealing with the real participants in an experiment acts as if he or she is also a participant confound p 43 A factor other than the independent variable that varies between the conditions of an experiment thereby calling into questions what actually caused any effects on the dependent variable construct validity p 31 The extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variable that they were designed to manipulate correlation coefficient p 36 A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables correlational research p 36 Researched designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher debriefing p 48 A disclosure made to participants after research procedures are completed in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research attempts to resolve any negative feelings and emphasizes the scienti c contribution made by the participant39s involvement deception p 45 In the context of research a method that provides false information to participants dependent variables p 41 In an experiment a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable experiment p 38 A form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because the experimenter has control over the events that occur and participants are randomly assigned to conditions experimental realism p 45 The degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously experimenter expectancy effects p 43 The effects produced when an experimenter39s expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby in uence the participant39s responses external validity p 44 The degree to which there can be reasonable con dence that the results of a study would be obtained from other people in other situations you got these results in you lab but would you get the same results in a real life situation hypothesis p 28 A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur independent variables p 41 In an experiment a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable informed consent p 48 An individual39s deliberate voluntary decision to participate in research based on the researcher s description of what will be required during such participation internal validity p 43 The degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment cause the effects obtained on the dependent variable interrater reliability p 32 The degree to which different observers agree on their observations metaanalysis p 45 A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects mundane realism p 44 The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world operational definition p 30 The speci c procedures for manipulating or measuring a variable random assignment p 38 A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions random sampling p 35 A method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study subject variables p 42 A variable that characterizes preexisting differences among the participants in a study theory p 28 An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1 Social psychologists use the scientific method when they study human behavior in order to a allow other social psychologists to attempt to replicate the findings b ensure that the right people get credit for the research c provide a solid theoretical foundation for social psychological research 1 encourage social psychologists to conduct more basic rather than applied research ANS A REF Introductory Section DB 1 KEY Conceptual 2 Adarah is learning about research methods in her social psychology course She will experience all of the following benefits except a she will become a more critical consumer of information in general b she will develop a better appreciation for the advantages of anecdotal stories c the findings she learns about in class will be easier to understand and remember d it will improve her reasoning about everyday events ANS B REF Why Should You Learn About Research Methods DB 1 KEY Applied 3 Social psychologists use electronic databases such as PsycInfo to a determine the scientific and moral value of their research question b find published research on a particular topic c help them select a random sample of participants from the population of interest d increase the external validity of their research ANS B REF Developing Ideas Beginning the Research Process DB 1 KEY Factual 4 A hypothesis provides a means of a theory a testing b proving c generalizing d creating ANS A REF Developing Ideas Beginning the Research Process DB 2 KEY Conceptual 5 Which of the following is not a testable hypothesis a Women tend to have more oppositesex friends than men b Stereotypes are more likely to impact judgments when people are tired c People smile more when they are lying than when they are telling the truth d Refusing to help someone in need is morally wrong ANS D REF Developing Ideas Beginning the Research Process DB 2 KEY Conceptual 6 An explicit testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is an a theory b independent variable c hypothesis d correlation coefficient ANS C REF Developing Ideas Beginning the Research Process DB 2 KEY Factual 7 An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena is called an a theory b hypothesis c educated guess d personal bias ANS A REF Developing Ideas Beginning the Research Process DB 2 KEY Factual 8 Which of the following best describes the primary goal of basic research a To examine human behavior in realworld settings b To test specific hypotheses derived from a specific theory c To integrate the different research methodologies Within one subfield of social psychology d To solve practical problems ANS B REF Developing Ideas Beginning the Research Process DB 1 KEY Factual 9 Sapna is interested in the in uence of nutrition on reaction time She assigns participants to eat a salad and fruit for dinner every day for a week or to eat fast food each day She then brings participants into the lab and asks them to push a button on a keyboard as fast as they can every time they hear a particular sound What are the operational definitions of the variables in Sapna s study a Nutrition Whether participants eat a salad or fast food b Nutrition reaction time c Whether participants eat salad or fast food reaction time d Whether participants eat salad or fast food how quickly they push the button When they hear the sound ANS D REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social Psychological Variables DB 2 KEY Applied 10 Construct validity is best defined as the extent to Which a the independent variable caused the observed change in the dependent variable b the operational definitions re ect the conceptual variables of interest c the experimental procedures are involving and meaningful to the participants d different constructs Within the study are correlated With one another ANS B REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social Psychological Variables DB 2 KEY Factual 11 In a study concerning the cues that signal deception Winston uses the number of times a person shifts in his or her seat as a measure of lying Virginia points out that people may shift their position because they are nervous about being perceived as a liar even though they are actually telling the truth Virginia is questioning the of Winston s measure of lying a construct validity b interrater reliability c mundane realism d internal validity ANS A Psychological Variables REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social OBJ 2 KEY Applied 12 Your book describes a study in which participants were provided with information about 13 14 either the success rate or failure rate of condoms The findings of this study indicate that a college students tend to be naively ignorant of the risks associated with some of their behaviors b the simple wording andor positioning of a question can have a drastic effect on selfreport responses c participants often lie when they are asked about sensitive personal issues d All of these ANS B Psychological Variables REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social DB 3 KEY Conceptual Which of the following has been shown to increase the accuracy of selfreports a Experimental research b Construct validity c Bogus pipeline d Random sampling ANS C REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social Psychological Variables DB 3 KEY Factual Selfreport measures and observational measures are similar in that both a can be in uenced by social desirability concerns b require high interrater reliability to be considered accurate c are subject to biases and distortions in memory d provide direct access to people s thoughts and feelings ANS A Variables REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social Psychological DB 3 KEY Conceptual 15 Johanna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective wellbeing Each evening around 6 pm Johanna is supposed to record in a journal the number of social interactions she had that day that were longer in duration than 5 minutes The researcher is using selfreport in this study a bogus pipeline b eventcontingent c signalcontingent d intervalcontingent ANS D REF Refining Ideas Defining and Measuring Social Psychological Variables DB 3 KEY Applied 16 The different research methods used by social psychologists tend to emphasize all of the following except a an objective approach b a variable approach c a systematic approach d a quantifiable approach ANS B REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 4 KEY Factual 17 A study that examines existing records or databases is referred to as a a case study b archival study c anecdotal study d survey ANS B REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 4 KEY Factual 18 Latrell the editor of a popular sports magazine would like to know more about the demographics of the magazine s readers He designs a questionnaire to assess this information and sends it to a random sample of the magazine s readers Latrell is conducting an a experiment b observational study c archival study d survey ANS D REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 4 KEY Applied 19 The most important aspect of sampling in a survey study is a its inclusion of equal numbers of individuals from different groups in the population the number of people in the sample c the ratio of the sample size to the population size d the extent to which the sample in this study matches the population proportionally in terms of demographic variables ANS D KEY Factual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 4 20 When decreases in one variable are accompanied by decreases in another variable the 21 22 23 In an experiment the independent variable is variables are described as a negatively correlated b positively correlated c causally related d prospectively related ANS B KEY Conceptual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 5 Random assignment is a defining feature of an experiment It means that a participants are able to select the particular experimental manipulations they wish to experience b participants were randomly selected from the population of interest c whether participants are in one condition or another is determined at random d participants are assigned to the experimental conditions on the basis of their pre existing differences ANS C KEY Factual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs OBJ 6 In comparison to field experiments laboratory experiments a permit researchers greater control b allow more naturalistic observation of behavior c are less susceptible to experimenter expectancy effects d have fewer problems caused by the limitations of selfreport data ANS A KEY Conceptual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 6 while the dependent variable is a held constant varied b correlational descriptive 24 Achieving 25 26 27 c manipulated measured d general specific ANS C KEY Conceptual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 6 is typically more of a challenge in a field study than in a laboratory study a high external validity b high internal validity c high mundane realism d crosscultural reliability ANS B KEY Conceptual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 7 One reason that social psychologists attempt to replicate the results of their research is that doing so a reduces the probability that the results are due to chance b increases the construct validity of the experiment c allows them to examine multiple relationships among variables d increases the likelihood that participants have been treated ethically ANS A KEY Conceptual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 7 The purpose of using control groups is to a address ethical concerns about experiments b determine if there are any interactions among the independent variables c ensure a high level of experimental realism d provide a baseline against Which to compare the effects of the independent variables ANS D REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 7 KEY Conceptual Advocates of basic research argue that the more the principle being studied the it matter Who participates in the study in terms of sample representativeness a basic more b applied less c basic less d complex more ANS C KEY Factual REF Testing Ideas Research Designs DB 7 28 Which of the following types of studies must be approved by an institutional reVieW board a Experiments using deception b Correlational studies c Descriptive studies d All of these ANS D REF Ethics and Value in Social Psychology DB 8 KEY Conceptual
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