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Mason - CHEM 211 - Study Guide Midterm - Study Guide

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Mason - CHEM 211 - Study Guide Midterm - Study Guide

School: George Mason University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 1
Professor: Paul Cooper
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Study Guide Midterm
Description: Study guide for Midetm on 11.01
Uploaded: 10/28/2017
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 7 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Chapter 4 Solutions Basics SolutionsΒ minor constitutent
Solvent
major constituent Concentration Concentration of solute Molarity (mol/L) = moles of solute/liters of solution Molality (mol/Kg=moles of solute/kg of solvent Formulas 𝑀 = π‘šπ‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘  π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝐿 π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 𝑀 0 𝑉 0 = 𝑀 2 𝑉 2 π‘€Β βˆ—Β π‘‰Β =Β π‘šπ‘œπ‘™ Solubility Rules: All common Group IA ions Soluble All common compounds of ammonium ionsΒ Soluble
All nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates
Soluble Precipitation Reactions Precipitation reactions have a ppt as a product They are double displacement
π΅π‘Ž(𝑁𝑂
9 ) 2 (;<) +Β π‘π‘Ž 2 𝑆𝑂 ? (;<)Β . β‡’Β π΅π‘Žπ‘†π‘‚ ? (B) =Β 2π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚ 9 (;<) Acid-Base Reactions H+ is acid OH-Β is base Strong AcidsΒ HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
Weak AcidsΒ Not one of those
Strong BasesΒ Group 1A and 2A hydroxides
Weak BasesΒ Not one of those
Boyle's Law Using a J tube, Boyle was able to discover that: β€’ 𝑃 0 𝑉 0 = 𝑃 2 𝑉 2 Pressure and volume must remain constant if n, T, and P are constant. β€’ Charles's Law Using mercury plug in icewater/boiling water bath: β€’ 𝑉 0 𝑇 0 ⎯⎯ = 𝑉 2 𝑇 2 ⎯⎯ If you extrapolate all lines from Charles's Law, it reaches -273ΒΊC or 0K (absolute zero) β€’ Volume and Temperature are directly proportional, if n and P are constant. β€’ Use Kelvin for calculations! β€’ Avogadro's Law Using dry ice and a cylinder: β€’ 𝑉 0 𝑛 0 ⎯⎯⎯= 𝑉 2 𝑛 2 ⎯⎯⎯ Volume and number of moles are proportional, if P and T are constant β€’ Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) Conditions: Temp: 273 K β€’ Pressure: 1atm=101325kPa (1kPa=1kg/ms^2) β€’ Combining Gas Laws: 𝑃𝑉 =Β π‘˜ 𝑉
𝑇
⎯⎯=Β π‘˜
𝑉
𝑛
⎯⎯=Β π‘˜ 𝑃 0 𝑉 0 𝑇 0 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ = 𝑃 2 𝑉 2 𝑇 2 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Ideal Gas Law: 𝑃𝑉 𝑛𝑇 ⎯⎯⎯= 𝑅 Where 𝑅 =Β .0821 ;KL M LNO P ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇 First Law of Thermodynamics Textbook formula: 𝑑𝐸 =Β π‘žΒ + 𝑀 Work is 𝑀 =Β βˆ’π‘ƒΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‰ Hear is is π‘ž V = 𝑑𝐻 π‘€π‘Žπ‘›π‘–π‘π‘’π‘™π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘‘ πΉπ‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘šπ‘’π‘™π‘Ž: 𝑑𝐸 =Β π‘‘π»Β βˆ’Β π‘ƒΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‰ When dV is small, 𝑑𝐸 = 𝑑𝐻 Measuring q π‘žΒ =Β πΆΒ βˆ—Β π‘šΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‡ 𝑑𝐻º ]^_ =Β π‘†π‘’π‘š`π‘šΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π» a,V]Nc dΒ βˆ’Β π‘ π‘’π‘š(π‘›Β βˆ—Β π‘‘π» a,]e;fK ) AudioΒ 1 Audio recording started: 1:58 PM Wednesday, October 25, 2017 Schrodinger Equation An electron is defined as both a wave and a particle Quantum Chemistry Heated objects emit light energy There was an element-color relationship in the first fireworks β—‹ β€’ Light energy and wave properties β€’ A photon: unit of light energy determined by Plank's equation β€’ Electromagnetic spectrum β€’ Refractions β€’ Equations Ξ»=Β π‘€π‘Žπ‘£π‘’π‘™π‘’π‘›π‘”π‘‘β„Ž V= frequency C=vΞ»=3x10^8 m/s dE_photon=hv=hc/Ξ» H=6.626x10^-34 J-s Amplitude is distance from midpoint to crest Waves Higher energy is with a smaller wavelength; Gamma rays have the highest energy, are lethal X-rays penetrate through people UV rays penetrate slightly and can cause skin cancer Visible light is 400-750nm in length IR is heat Microwaves heat up things Radio waves are used to transmit, bounce off people Wave Detection Passing waves through small slits, they diffract at different angles, creating a diffraction pattern When waves are in phase, they are added (additive) When they are out of phase, they are cancelled (dark spots) Utilized in X-ray crystallography Particle Detection A particle was needed to remove electrons from the metal plate (Einstein Photoelectric Effect) Duality in Behavior Electromagnetic WAVES also have PARTICLE behavior. Light Emission Spectrum of an Atom As an electron is electrically excited, it emits a specific wavelength of light. Plank found whole number integers (Quantum numbers) that describe the wavelength emitted by a specific element when heated. Rydberg and Bohr Equations Study Guide Midterm Saturday, October Β 28, 2017 12:56 PM
background image Chapter 4 Solutions Basics SolutionsΒ minor constitutent
Solvent
major constituent Concentration Concentration of solute Molarity (mol/L) = moles of solute/liters of solution Molality (mol/Kg=moles of solute/kg of solvent Formulas 𝑀 = π‘šπ‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘  π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝐿 π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 𝑀 0 𝑉 0 = 𝑀 2 𝑉 2 π‘€Β βˆ—Β π‘‰Β =Β π‘šπ‘œπ‘™ Solubility Rules: All common Group IA ions Soluble All common compounds of ammonium ionsΒ Soluble
All nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates
Soluble Precipitation Reactions Precipitation reactions have a ppt as a product They are double displacement
π΅π‘Ž(𝑁𝑂
9 ) 2 (;<) +Β π‘π‘Ž 2 𝑆𝑂 ? (;<)Β . β‡’Β π΅π‘Žπ‘†π‘‚ ? (B) =Β 2π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚ 9 (;<) Acid-Base Reactions H+ is acid OH-Β is base Strong AcidsΒ HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
Weak AcidsΒ Not one of those
Strong BasesΒ Group 1A and 2A hydroxides
Weak BasesΒ Not one of those
Boyle's Law Using a J tube, Boyle was able to discover that: β€’ 𝑃 0 𝑉 0 = 𝑃 2 𝑉 2 Pressure and volume must remain constant if n, T, and P are constant. β€’ Charles's Law Using mercury plug in icewater/boiling water bath: β€’ 𝑉 0 𝑇 0 ⎯⎯ = 𝑉 2 𝑇 2 ⎯⎯ If you extrapolate all lines from Charles's Law, it reaches -273ΒΊC or 0K (absolute zero) β€’ Volume and Temperature are directly proportional, if n and P are constant. β€’ Use Kelvin for calculations! β€’ Avogadro's Law Using dry ice and a cylinder: β€’ 𝑉 0 𝑛 0 ⎯⎯⎯= 𝑉 2 𝑛 2 ⎯⎯⎯ Volume and number of moles are proportional, if P and T are constant β€’ Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) Conditions: Temp: 273 K β€’ Pressure: 1atm=101325kPa (1kPa=1kg/ms^2) β€’ Combining Gas Laws: 𝑃𝑉 =Β π‘˜ 𝑉
𝑇
⎯⎯=Β π‘˜
𝑉
𝑛
⎯⎯=Β π‘˜ 𝑃 0 𝑉 0 𝑇 0 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ = 𝑃 2 𝑉 2 𝑇 2 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Ideal Gas Law: 𝑃𝑉 𝑛𝑇 ⎯⎯⎯= 𝑅 Where 𝑅 =Β .0821 ;KL M LNO P ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇 First Law of Thermodynamics Textbook formula: 𝑑𝐸 =Β π‘žΒ + 𝑀 Work is 𝑀 =Β βˆ’π‘ƒΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‰ Hear is is π‘ž V = 𝑑𝐻 π‘€π‘Žπ‘›π‘–π‘π‘’π‘™π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘‘ πΉπ‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘šπ‘’π‘™π‘Ž: 𝑑𝐸 =Β π‘‘π»Β βˆ’Β π‘ƒΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‰ When dV is small, 𝑑𝐸 = 𝑑𝐻 Measuring q π‘žΒ =Β πΆΒ βˆ—Β π‘šΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‡ 𝑑𝐻º ]^_ =Β π‘†π‘’π‘š`π‘šΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π» a,V]Nc dΒ βˆ’Β π‘ π‘’π‘š(π‘›Β βˆ—Β π‘‘π» a,]e;fK ) AudioΒ 1 Audio recording started: 1:58 PM Wednesday, October 25, 2017 Schrodinger Equation An electron is defined as both a wave and a particle Quantum Chemistry Heated objects emit light energy There was an element-color relationship in the first fireworks β—‹ β€’ Light energy and wave properties β€’ A photon: unit of light energy determined by Plank's equation β€’ Electromagnetic spectrum β€’ Refractions β€’ Equations Ξ»=Β π‘€π‘Žπ‘£π‘’π‘™π‘’π‘›π‘”π‘‘β„Ž V= frequency C=vΞ»=3x10^8 m/s dE_photon=hv=hc/Ξ» H=6.626x10^-34 J-s Amplitude is distance from midpoint to crest Waves Higher energy is with a smaller wavelength; Gamma rays have the highest energy, are lethal X-rays penetrate through people UV rays penetrate slightly and can cause skin cancer Visible light is 400-750nm in length IR is heat Microwaves heat up things Radio waves are used to transmit, bounce off people Wave Detection Passing waves through small slits, they diffract at different angles, creating a diffraction pattern When waves are in phase, they are added (additive) When they are out of phase, they are cancelled (dark spots) Utilized in X-ray crystallography Particle Detection A particle was needed to remove electrons from the metal plate (Einstein Photoelectric Effect) Duality in Behavior Electromagnetic WAVES also have PARTICLE behavior. Light Emission Spectrum of an Atom As an electron is electrically excited, it emits a specific wavelength of light. Plank found whole number integers (Quantum numbers) that describe the wavelength emitted by a specific element when heated. Rydberg and Bohr Equations Study Guide Midterm Saturday, October Β 28, 2017 12:56 PM
background image Chapter 4 Solutions Basics SolutionsΒ minor constitutent
Solvent
major constituent Concentration Concentration of solute Molarity (mol/L) = moles of solute/liters of solution Molality (mol/Kg=moles of solute/kg of solvent Formulas 𝑀 = π‘šπ‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘  π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝐿 π‘œπ‘“ π‘ π‘œπ‘™π‘’π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 𝑀 0 𝑉 0 = 𝑀 2 𝑉 2 π‘€Β βˆ—Β π‘‰Β =Β π‘šπ‘œπ‘™ Solubility Rules: All common Group IA ions Soluble All common compounds of ammonium ionsΒ Soluble
All nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates
Soluble Precipitation Reactions Precipitation reactions have a ppt as a product They are double displacement
π΅π‘Ž(𝑁𝑂
9 ) 2 (;<) +Β π‘π‘Ž 2 𝑆𝑂 ? (;<)Β . β‡’Β π΅π‘Žπ‘†π‘‚ ? (B) =Β 2π‘π‘Žπ‘π‘‚ 9 (;<) Acid-Base Reactions H+ is acid OH-Β is base Strong AcidsΒ HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
Weak AcidsΒ Not one of those
Strong BasesΒ Group 1A and 2A hydroxides
Weak BasesΒ Not one of those
Boyle's Law Using a J tube, Boyle was able to discover that: β€’ 𝑃 0 𝑉 0 = 𝑃 2 𝑉 2 Pressure and volume must remain constant if n, T, and P are constant. β€’ Charles's Law Using mercury plug in icewater/boiling water bath: β€’ 𝑉 0 𝑇 0 ⎯⎯ = 𝑉 2 𝑇 2 ⎯⎯ If you extrapolate all lines from Charles's Law, it reaches -273ΒΊC or 0K (absolute zero) β€’ Volume and Temperature are directly proportional, if n and P are constant. β€’ Use Kelvin for calculations! β€’ Avogadro's Law Using dry ice and a cylinder: β€’ 𝑉 0 𝑛 0 ⎯⎯⎯= 𝑉 2 𝑛 2 ⎯⎯⎯ Volume and number of moles are proportional, if P and T are constant β€’ Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) Conditions: Temp: 273 K β€’ Pressure: 1atm=101325kPa (1kPa=1kg/ms^2) β€’ Combining Gas Laws: 𝑃𝑉 =Β π‘˜ 𝑉
𝑇
⎯⎯=Β π‘˜
𝑉
𝑛
⎯⎯=Β π‘˜ 𝑃 0 𝑉 0 𝑇 0 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ = 𝑃 2 𝑉 2 𝑇 2 ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Ideal Gas Law: 𝑃𝑉 𝑛𝑇 ⎯⎯⎯= 𝑅 Where 𝑅 =Β .0821 ;KL M LNO P ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇 First Law of Thermodynamics Textbook formula: 𝑑𝐸 =Β π‘žΒ + 𝑀 Work is 𝑀 =Β βˆ’π‘ƒΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‰ Hear is is π‘ž V = 𝑑𝐻 π‘€π‘Žπ‘›π‘–π‘π‘’π‘™π‘Žπ‘‘π‘’π‘‘ πΉπ‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘šπ‘’π‘™π‘Ž: 𝑑𝐸 =Β π‘‘π»Β βˆ’Β π‘ƒΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‰ When dV is small, 𝑑𝐸 = 𝑑𝐻 Measuring q π‘žΒ =Β πΆΒ βˆ—Β π‘šΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π‘‡ 𝑑𝐻º ]^_ =Β π‘†π‘’π‘š`π‘šΒ βˆ—Β π‘‘π» a,V]Nc dΒ βˆ’Β π‘ π‘’π‘š(π‘›Β βˆ—Β π‘‘π» a,]e;fK ) AudioΒ 1 Audio recording started: 1:58 PM Wednesday, October 25, 2017 Schrodinger Equation An electron is defined as both a wave and a particle Quantum Chemistry Heated objects emit light energy There was an element-color relationship in the first fireworks β—‹ β€’ Light energy and wave properties β€’ A photon: unit of light energy determined by Plank's equation β€’ Electromagnetic spectrum β€’ Refractions β€’ Equations Ξ»=Β π‘€π‘Žπ‘£π‘’π‘™π‘’π‘›π‘”π‘‘β„Ž V= frequency C=vΞ»=3x10^8 m/s dE_photon=hv=hc/Ξ» H=6.626x10^-34 J-s Amplitude is distance from midpoint to crest Waves Higher energy is with a smaller wavelength; Gamma rays have the highest energy, are lethal X-rays penetrate through people UV rays penetrate slightly and can cause skin cancer Visible light is 400-750nm in length IR is heat Microwaves heat up things Radio waves are used to transmit, bounce off people Wave Detection Passing waves through small slits, they diffract at different angles, creating a diffraction pattern When waves are in phase, they are added (additive) When they are out of phase, they are cancelled (dark spots) Utilized in X-ray crystallography Particle Detection A particle was needed to remove electrons from the metal plate (Einstein Photoelectric Effect) Duality in Behavior Electromagnetic WAVES also have PARTICLE behavior. Light Emission Spectrum of an Atom As an electron is electrically excited, it emits a specific wavelength of light. Plank found whole number integers (Quantum numbers) that describe the wavelength emitted by a specific element when heated. Rydberg and Bohr Equations Study Guide Midterm Saturday, October Β 28, 2017 12:56 PM

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School: George Mason University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 1
Professor: Paul Cooper
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Study Guide Midterm
Description: Study guide for Midetm on 11.01
Uploaded: 10/28/2017
7 Pages 19 Views 15 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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