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CMU - HSC 212 - Study Guide - Midterm

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CMU - HSC 212 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image HSC/PES 212 – Applied Physiology and Kinesiology Exam #2 Study Guide This exam will cover the Skeletal System & Bone, Articulations (including specific  joints), and Biomechanics of Tendons & Ligaments. Defintions Congruent articular surfaces Joint congruent is the measurement of two opposing joint surfaces as they relate to one another 
In another word, it can be described as how well joint surface match or fit with each other.
Incongruent articular surfaces  unequal loading across articular cartilage and/or epiphyseal plate (e.g. subluxation, predisposin
g bone remodeling and osteoarthrosis
Range of motion (ROM) The full  movement potential of a joint, usually its range of flexion and extension. For example, a  knee might lack 10 degrees of full extension due to an injury. Concepts and Processes 1) Identify and describe the five major types of bones found in the human body. Short bones Long bones flat bones irregular bones (Irregular in shape, usually with prominent surface features for  muscle attachment) ­ sesamoid bone (Small, bony growths within tendons,   aid tendon in resisting  high forces and/or friction) 2) Discuss the structure of long bones. Length greater than width Functions: lever and hemopoiesis 3) Discuss the composition of bone tissue. Mineral salts (c. 66%) Protein fibers (c. 32%) Collagen Elastin Ground substance (c. 2%) 4) Discuss the structure of compact and spongy bone. Compact Bone (Osteon) are arranged in rings around a  central (Haversian) canal Spongy Bone (Trabeculae)
background image Lamellae arranged into rods or thick, branching plates 5)Discuss the biomechanical properties of bone, including any differences between spongy and 
compact bone.
Compact vs. Spongy Bone Structure Compact bone Located on outside of epiphyses and diaphysis of long bones Spongy Bone Located only in the epiphyses of long bones Helps reduce bone weight Provides space for bone marrow Compact vs. Spongy Bone Mechanics Compact Bone Good at handling high compressive forces from a single direction Stiffer More brittle Spongy Bone Good at resisting stresses from many directions 5­10% as stiff 5 times more ductile 6) Discuss bone remodeling and how it relates to stress/lack of stress. When the bone responds to stress: Increased stress causes formation of more bone matrix Osteoblast activity > osteoclast activity Decreased stress causes the loss of bone matrix 7) Discuss the composition and structure of tendons and ligaments, including the organization  of tendons. Tendons vs Ligaments  Structure More collagen Less ground substance Very parallel orientation of collagen fibers Larger collagen fiber diameter Tendons vs Ligaments
Functions
Tendons
Attachment points between muscle and bone Energy storage Ligaments
Increases joint stability Limits excessive joint motion
background image 8) Discuss the functions of tendons and ligaments. Same as above  9) Describe the biomechanical properties of tendons and ligaments, including the effects of age,  hormones, and immobilization on these properties. Effects of Age = Tensile strength of tendons/ligs increases during childhood, peaks in early  adulthood, and then declines during middle Hormones = Cortisol lowers proteoglycan content and reduces synthesis of collagen fibers (at  high levels) Estrogen has been theorized to decrease tensile strength in ligaments Immobilization = even after 12 months strength is only 90% of pre­immobilization levels
10) Define the three types of joints in the functional classification system; define the three joints 
in the structural classification system. Be sure to include any subclasses and an example of 
each.
Synarthroses ­ Connect the cranial bones in the skull
Fibrous joint
Amphiarthroses ­ Syndesmoses Join two adjacent long bones by ligamentous tissue (Distal tibiofibular joint) Fibrous joint – Symphyses
Two bones joined by a fibrocartilage pad Diarthroses ­ Articular Capsule Fibrous joint capsule (surrounds and protects joint) – Synovial Membrane
Secretes  synovial fluid Articular Cartilage Protects the bones Hyaline cartilage 11) Describe the general features of diarthroses, including both integral and accessory structures. Integral structures are above ^^^ Accessory structures Accessory Ligaments – Bone to bone supports Menisci – a.k.a. articular discs
– Fibrocartilage pads
Fat Pads ­ Lightly covered by synovial membrane ­ Bursae o Small sacs of dense fibrous CT lined with a synovial membrane and filled 
with synovial fluid (reduces friction, shock absorption)
12) Describe the functions of synovial fluid. Protect articular cartilages and joint cavity

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School: Central Michigan University
Department: Science
Course: Applied Anatomy and Kinesiology
Professor: Wisner
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: AppliedAnatomy and Kinesiology
Name: HSC 212 Exam2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers what will be on our exam
Uploaded: 10/28/2017
7 Pages 63 Views 50 Unlocks
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