Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

WSU - ARCH 2200 - Study Guide - Midterm

Created by: Kaylee Notetaker Elite Notetaker

> > > > WSU - ARCH 2200 - Study Guide - Midterm

WSU - ARCH 2200 - Study Guide - Midterm

This preview shows pages 1 - 2 of a 6 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Dating ​ ​Sites​ ​and​ ​Artifacts:   (Reading: ​ ​Ch.​ ​4​ ​In​ ​Textbook)  Relative ​ ​Dating​​ ​-​ ​what​ ​archaeologists​ ​use​ ​to​ ​find​ ​out​ ​how​ ​old​ ​artifacts  are. ​ ​There​ ​are​ ​four​ ​main​ ​techniques​ ​used​ ​for​ ​relative​ ​dating:  1. ​ ​​Stratigraphy​ ​and​ ​Association​​ ​-​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​that​ ​items​ ​on​ ​the  bottom ​ ​are​ ​older​ ​than​ ​the​ ​items​ ​above​ ​them.   2. ​ ​​Typological​ ​Sequences​ ​​-​ ​artifacts​ ​are​ ​organized​ ​into​ ​types  (groups) ​ ​based​ ​on​ ​their​ ​physical​ ​attributes.  Evolution ​​ ​must​ ​be​ ​considered​ ​during​ ​this​ ​process​ ​because  if ​ ​objects​ ​evolve,​ ​they​ ​may​ ​be​ ​the​ ​same​ ​object,​ ​just​ ​with  different ​ ​physical​ ​characteristics.  Inventions ​ ​are​ ​often​ ​a​ ​cause​ ​of​ ​changes​ ​including:  size, ​ ​shape,​ ​decoration,​ ​or​ ​style.   3. ​ ​​Seriation​​ ​-​ ​measures​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​how​ ​common​ ​artifact​ ​types  are ​ ​through​ ​time,​ ​shown​ ​by​ ​seriation​ ​charts.   Seriation ​ ​can​ ​help​ ​us​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​culture​ ​that​ ​the  artifacts ​ ​came​ ​from,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​some​ ​cases,​ ​their​ ​religion.  (Example: ​ ​gravestones).   ***Seriation ​ ​was​ ​the​​ ​method​ ​used​ ​before​​ ​radiocarbon  dating.    4. ​ ​​Environmental​ ​Sequences​​ ​-​ ​reveals​ ​regional​ ​and​ ​global  sequences ​ ​of​ ​climate​ ​changes.   Includes ​ ​early​ ​periods​ ​of​ ​human​ ​evolution:  Pliocene ​ ​epoch  Pleistocene ​ ​epoch  Holocene ​ ​epoch  Environmental ​ ​sequences​ ​are​ ​documented​ ​through  microorganisms ​ ​called​ ​​foraminifera.   Foraminifera ​ ​produce​ ​small,​ ​calcium​ ​carbonate  shells, ​ ​which​ ​they​ ​leave​ ​behind​ ​when​ ​they​ ​shed​ ​them  or ​ ​die.  
background image Absolute ​ ​Dating​​ ​-​ ​this​ ​is​ ​when​ ​you​ ​get​ ​an​ ​​exact​​ ​number,​ ​and​ ​where  most ​ ​of​ ​the​ ​methods​ ​used​ ​are​ ​based​ ​on​ ​radioactive​ ​decay.   Half-life ​​ ​-​ ​the​ ​time​ ​for​ ​half​ ​of​ ​the​ ​radioactivity​ ​to​ ​emit.  Radiocarbon ​ ​Dating​:  Carbon ​ ​14​ ​has​ ​a​ ​half-life​ ​of​ ​5,730​ ​years.   All ​ ​living​ ​organisms​ ​take​ ​up​ ​C14​ ​through​ ​the​ ​carbon  cycle.    Radiocarbon ​ ​dating​ ​can​ ​date​ ​​organic​​ ​materials​ ​from  400-500,000 ​ ​years​ ​ago.   It ​ ​is​ ​important​ ​that​ ​you​ ​​do​ ​not​ ​touch​​ ​the​ ​material​ ​before  sending ​ ​it​ ​off​ ​to​ ​be​ ​tested.   When ​ ​you​ ​receive​ ​the​ ​results,​ ​you​ ​always​ ​get​ ​two  dates:   1. ​ ​Raw​ ​date  2. ​ ​​Calibrated​ ​date​​ ​(this​ ​is​ ​the​ ​date​ ​you​ ​really  want)   A ​ ​​negative​​ ​side​ ​to​ ​radiocarbon​ ​dating​ ​is​ ​that​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​be  tested, ​ ​the​ ​material​ ​must​ ​be​ ​destroyed.   Potassium-argon ​ ​Dating​:  Potassium ​ ​40​ ​has​ ​a​ ​half-life​ ​of​ ​1.25​ ​billion​ ​years.  Molten ​ ​lava​ ​releases​ ​K40​ ​and​ ​captures​ ​it​ ​when​ ​hardened,  which ​ ​as​ ​it​ ​decays,​ ​creates​ ​Ar40.   The ​ ​​ratio​​ ​of​ ​these​ ​two​ ​elements​ ​provides​ ​the​ ​absolute  date.    East ​ ​African​ ​Rift​ ​Valley:  Was ​ ​a​ ​volcanic​ ​deposit​ ​with​ ​fossils​ ​everywhere.   The ​ ​fossils​ ​were​ ​well-preserved​ ​and​ ​could​ ​be​ ​dated  easily.    Dendrochronology:   Tree-ring ​ ​dating​​ ​-​ ​is​ ​based​ ​on​ ​growth​ ​rings​ ​that​ ​naturally  occur ​ ​in​ ​trees,​ ​that​ ​reflect​ ​climate​ ​conditions.  This ​ ​is​ ​able​ ​to​ ​be​ ​told​ ​through​ ​how​ ​thick​ ​the​ ​​spaces  between ​ ​the​ ​rings​​ ​are​ ​and​ ​how​ ​thick​ ​​the​ ​rings 

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Wright State University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Wright State University
Department: Archaeology
Course: Introduction to Archaeology
Professor: Lance Greene
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Archaeology, artifacts, and remains
Name: Midterm Studyguide
Description: This studyguide gives information and pointers on what to study before our Midterm exam.
Uploaded: 10/28/2017
6 Pages 53 Views 42 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to WSU - ATH 2200 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to WSU - ATH 2200 - Study Guide - Midterm

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here