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PSYCH 1001 - PSYC 1001 Exam 2 F18 - Study Guide

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PSYCH 1001 - PSYC 1001 Exam 2 F18 - Study Guide

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background image PSYC  1001 Exam 2 Study Guide    ● Exam  2 will cover materials presented from chapters 4, 6, 7, 8   ● Exam  2 is open from 12  4 pm on MONDAY, 10/30   ● You  can access Exam 2 under the ‘Quizzes’ portion of the ‘Assessments’ tab on D2L   ● You  MUST be somewhere with a reliable internet connection  ● You  MAY NOT work with anyone else on the exam  ● We  will not have class on Monday, 10/30, but WILL have class on Wednesday,11/1  ● YOU  CAN DO THIS!    Key  Ideas    Chapter  4:    ● Our  bodies develop and mature throughout the lifespan   ● Our  thinking (cognition) evolves throughout the lifespan  ● Our  development is shaped by the environment and our interactions with others  ● Our  social and emotional bond with others changes throughout the lifespan  ● Our  concept of ‘right’ vs. ‘wrong’ (i.e. ‘moral compass’) changes as we mature    Chapter  6:    ● There  are three main types of learning, each with it own subset of learning types.  ● Non-associative  (‘Implicit’) learning in unconscious learning  ● Associative  (‘Explicit’) learning is consciously learning the association between two things  ● Social  learning happens when we learn something by watching others    Chapter  7:    ● We  encode, store and retrieve memories (information)  ● Attention  is the key to encoding memories  ● There  are three types of memories    ● Some  long-term memories are conscious and some are unconscious    ○ Conscious: ​ ​Explicit    ○ Unconscious: ​ ​Implicit    ● Some  people cannot make new memories; Some people cannot remember old memories    ○ Retrograde ​ ​Amnesia:​ ​Forget​ ​old​ ​memories   
background image ○ Anterograde ​ ​Amnesia:​ ​No​ ​new​ ​memories​ ​(like​ ​HM)   
 
● Our  memories may be affected by past experience, lost or distorted    ○ Memory ​ ​Bias  ○ Flashbulb ​ ​memories  ○ Misattribution 
○ Suggestibility  
 
 
 
Chapter
 8:    ● We  represent ideas in two different ways in our minds    ○ Analogical: ​ ​Physical​ ​representation    ○ Symbolic: ​ ​Words​ ​/​ ​Ideas    ● We  organize ideas into one of two frameworks (called schemas)    ○ Prototype: ​ ​Most​ ​‘Typical’​ ​Example    ○ Exemplar: ​ ​Compare​ ​new​ ​examples​ ​to​ ​all​ ​other​ ​examples    ● Problem  solving and decision making are two separate processes    ○ Problem ​ ​Solving:​ ​Obstacle​ ​-​ ​goal    ○ Decision ​ ​Making:​ ​Choosing​ ​between​ ​alternatives    ● We  use mental ‘short cuts’ to make fast, ‘snap’ decisions    ○ Availability ​ ​Heuristic:​ ​Things​ ​exciting​ ​/​ ​traumatic​ ​think​ ​of    ○ Representativeness ​ ​Heuristic:​ ​Judging​ ​on​ ​stereotype​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​likelihood      ● The  context of a choice affects our decisions    ○ Framing: ​ ​How​ ​things​ ​worded/presented​ ​affect​ ​choice    ○ Sunk-cost ​ ​Fallacy:​ ​Decision​ ​based​ ​on​ ​what​ ​previously​ ​invested 
background image   ● We  solve problems using a variety of strategies    ○ Working ​ ​backward    ○ Analogy     ○ Sudden ​ ​Insight     
 
Chapter
 4: Development    Development  Overview    ● What  are the three categories developmental changes are grouped into?    1. Physical ​ ​(body)  2. Cognitive ​ ​(Thinking)  3. Socio-emotional ​ ​(social​ ​interaction)   
 
● What  are the three prenatal stages, including the feature of each?    1. Germinal ​ ​Stage:   a. 2-Week ​ ​period​ ​post​ ​conception  b. Zygote: ​ ​Fertilized​ ​egg    2. Embryonic ​ ​Stage:  a. 2nd ​ ​-​ ​8th​ ​week​ ​post​ ​conception    3. Fetal ​ ​Stage:  a. 9th ​ ​week​ ​post​ ​conception​ ​until​ ​birth   
background image ● What  is a ‘teratogen?’ What are examples of common teratogen?  ○ Prenatal ​ ​Environment  ■ Womb ​ ​environment​ ​can​ ​affect​ ​an​ ​unborn​ ​baby  ■ Placenta ​ ​links​ ​bloodstream​ ​of​ ​mother​ ​and​ ​baby   ■ Can ​ ​exchange:  ● Food 
● Teratogens: 
○ Things ​ ​that​ ​cause​ ​damage​ ​during​ ​development,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​drugs  and ​ ​viruses  ○ Example:   ■ Legal ​ ​Drugs:​ ​Alcohol,​ ​nicotine,​ ​caffeine  ■ Recreational ​ ​Drugs:​ ​Cocaine,​ ​marijuana  ■ Infections: ​ ​German​ ​Measles,​ ​Syphilis  ■ Environmental ​ ​Factors:​ ​Radiation,​ ​mercury     
 
  Physical  Development    ● What  are the two rules that describe how muscles develop in children? Be prepared to  identify  an example of each.   
 
background image ● What  are the two sexual characteristics that develop during puberty? What is the difference  between  the two. Be prepared to identify an example of each.    ○ Puberty: ​ ​The​ ​physical​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​the​ ​body​ ​that​ ​are​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​sexual​ ​development.    ○ Secondary ​ ​Sex​ ​Characteristics:​ ​Physical​ ​changes​ ​during​ ​puberty​ ​that​ ​are​ ​not​ ​directly  related ​ ​to​ ​reproduction​ ​but​ ​that​ ​indicate​ ​the​ ​differences​ ​between​ ​the​ ​sexes.    ○ Primary ​ ​Sex​ ​Characteristics:​ ​Physical​ ​development​ ​during​ ​puberty​ ​that​ ​results​ ​in​ ​sexually  mature ​ ​reproductive​ ​organs​ ​and​ ​genitals.   
 
 
Cognitive
 Development   
 
● What  is the difference between assimilation and accommodation? Be prepared to identify an  example  of each.    ○ Assimilation: ​ ​Incorporate​ ​new​ ​information​ ​into​ ​existing​ ​frameworks​ ​(schemas)​ ​for  knowledge  ■ Example: ​ ​Saw​ ​this​ ​four-legged​ ​animal​ ​for​ ​the​ ​first​ ​time.​ ​⇒​ ​Calls​ ​her​ ​four-legged  pet ​ ​‘doggy’​ ​⇒​ ​Child​ ​will​ ​call​ ​this​ ​a​ ​‘dogg’  ○ Accomodation: ​ ​Create​ ​new​ ​frameworks​ ​(schemas)​ ​for​ ​knowledge​ ​that​ ​otherwise​ ​would  not ​ ​fit  ■ Example: ​ ​Saw​ ​this​ ​four​ ​legged​ ​animal​ ​for​ ​the​ ​first​ ​time​ ​⇒​ ​Child​ ​calls​ ​her​ ​legged  pet ​ ​‘doggy’​ ​⇒​ ​The​ ​child​ ​called​ ​the​ ​new​ ​animal​ ​a​ ​‘doggy’​ ​and​ ​the​ ​mommy​ ​told  her ​ ​it’s​ ​a​ ​cow   
 
 
● What  are Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development? What is the key milestone/feature of  each?  Be prepared to identify an example of each.     1. Sensorimotor: ​ ​Explore​ ​world​ ​through​ ​senses:  a. Obtain ​ ​object​ ​permanence  2. Preoperational: ​ ​Egocentrism  3. Concrete ​ ​Operational:​ ​Conservation​ ​of​ ​#,​ ​volume,​ ​mass,​ ​weight  4. Formal ​ ​Operational:​ ​Abstract​ ​thinking;​ ​predict​ ​future​ ​outcomes      ● What  is the difference between egocentrism and theory of mind? When does the theory of  mind  Develop? 

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School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology (Lecture)
Professor: Jennifer Stratford
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology
Name: PSYC 1001 Exam 2 F18
Description: This Study Guide goes over the F18 Midterm 2 Review. The chapters included are 4, 6-8.
Uploaded: 10/28/2017
25 Pages 70 Views 56 Unlocks
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