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URI - PSY 103 - PSY 103 Study Guide for Exam #2 - Study Guide

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URI - PSY 103 - PSY 103 Study Guide for Exam #2 - Study Guide

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background image Psychology ​ ​Self-Understanding   Exam ​ ​2​ ​Study​ ​Guide    Chapter ​ ​7  Social ​ ​Thinking​ ​and​ ​Social​ ​Influence    ● As ​ ​people​ ​interact​ ​with​ ​others,​ ​they​ ​constantly​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​​person  perception the  process of forming impressions of others.  ● Because ​ ​impression​ ​formation​ ​is​ ​usually​ ​such​ ​an​ ​automatic​ ​process,​ ​people​ ​are  unaware ​ ​that​ ​it​ ​is​ ​taking​ ​place.   ● Nonetheless, ​ ​the​ ​process​ ​is​ ​a​ ​complex​ ​one,   ○ involving ​ ​perceivers,   ○ their ​ ​social​ ​networks,   ○ and ​ ​those​ ​who​ ​are​ ​perceived     Key ​ ​Sources​ ​of​ ​Information  ● In ​ ​forming​ ​impressions​ ​of​ ​others,​ ​people​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​five​ ​key​ ​sources​ ​of​ ​observational  information:   ○ appearance,  
○ verbal
​ ​behavior,   ○ actions,  
○ nonverbal
​ ​messages,   ○ and ​ ​situational​ ​cues.    ​ ​1.​ ​​Appearance.   ○ Physical ​ ​features​ ​such​ ​as​ ​height,​ ​weight,​ ​skin​ ​color,​ ​and​ ​hair​ ​color​ ​are  some ​ ​of​ ​the​ ​cues​ ​used​ ​to​ ​“read”​ ​other​ ​people.   ○ Regardless ​ ​of​ ​their​ ​accuracy,​ ​beliefs​ ​about​ ​physical​ ​features​ ​are​ ​used​ ​to  form ​ ​impressions​ ​of​ ​others​ ​(Olivola​ ​&​ ​Todorov,​ ​2010),​ ​including​ ​people’s  personalities ​ ​(Naumann​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2009).   ○ Styles ​ ​of​ ​dress,​ ​clothing​ ​or​ ​jewelry​ ​that​ ​designate​ ​religious​ ​beliefs,​ ​body  piercings, ​ ​and​ ​tattoos​ ​also​ ​provide​ ​clues​ ​about​ ​others.     ● 2. ​ ​​Verbal  behavior.   ○ People ​ ​form​ ​impressions​ ​based​ ​on​ ​what​ ​and​ ​how​ ​much​ ​others  self-disclose,   ○ how ​ ​often​ ​they​ ​give​ ​advice​ ​and​ ​ask​ ​questions,   ○ and ​ ​how​ ​judgmental​ ​they​ ​are   ● 3. ​ ​​Actions ​.  
background image ○ Because ​ ​people​ ​don’t​ ​always​ ​tell​ ​the​ ​truth,​ ​you​ ​have​ ​to​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​their  behavior ​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​insights​ ​about​ ​them.   ● 4. ​ ​Nonverbal​ ​messages.   ○ A ​ ​key​ ​source​ ​of​ ​information​ ​about​ ​others​ ​is​ ​nonverbal​ ​communication:   ■ facial ​ ​expressions  ■ eye ​ ​contact,   ■ body ​ ​language,   ■ and ​ ​gestures   ■ These ​ ​nonverbal​ ​cues​ ​provide​ ​information​ ​about​ ​people’s  emotional ​ ​states​ ​and​ ​dispositions.   ■ Also, ​ ​because​ ​people​ ​know​ ​that​ ​verbal​ ​behavior​ ​is​ ​easily  manipulated, ​ ​they​ ​often​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​nonverbal​ ​cues​ ​to​ ​determine​ ​the  truth ​ ​of​ ​what​ ​others​ ​say   ■ And ​ ​we​ ​should​ ​not​ ​forget​ ​about​ ​nonverbal​ ​cues​ ​that​ ​appear​ ​in  written ​ ​form​ ​(how​ ​we​ ​say​ ​what​ ​we​ ​say)  ● 5. ​ ​Situations.   ○ The ​ ​setting​ ​in​ ​which​ ​behavior​ ​occurs​ ​provides​ ​crucial​ ​information​ ​about  how ​ ​to​ ​interpret​ ​a​ ​person’s​ ​behavior   ● When ​ ​it​ ​comes​ ​to​ ​drawing​ ​inferences​ ​about​ ​people,​ ​one​ ​bad​ ​piece​ ​of​ ​information  can ​ ​outweigh​ ​or​ ​undo​ ​a​ ​collection​ ​of​ ​positive​ ​characteristics.   ●   ● Snap ​ ​Judgments​ ​Versus​ ​Systematic​ ​Judgments  ● Snap ​ ​judgments​ ​about​ ​others​ ​are​ ​those​ ​made​ ​quickly​ ​and​ ​based​ ​on​ ​only​ ​a​ ​few​ ​bits​ ​of  information ​ ​and​ ​preconceived​ ​notions.   ● In ​ ​forming​ ​impressions​ ​of​ ​those​ ​who​ ​can​ ​affect​ ​their​ ​welfare​ ​and​ ​happiness,​ ​people  make ​ ​​systematic   judgments   ​​ rather ​ ​than​ ​snap​ ​decisions   ○ That ​ ​is,​ ​they​ ​take​ ​the​ ​time​ ​to​ ​observe​ ​the​ ​person​ ​in​ ​a​ ​variety​ ​of​ ​situations​ ​and​ ​to  compare ​ ​that​ ​person’s​ ​behavior​ ​with​ ​that​ ​of​ ​others​ ​in​ ​similar​ ​situations.   ○ To ​ ​determine​ ​the​ ​cause​ ​of​ ​others’​ ​behavior,​ ​people​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​the​ ​process​ ​of  causal ​ ​attribution.  Attributions   ● attributions   ​​ are  inferences that people draw about the causes of their own  behavior,  others’ behavior, and events.  ● attributions ​ ​have​ ​three​ ​key​ ​dimensions:   ○ internal ​ ​versus​ ​external,   ○ stable ​ ​versus​ ​unstable,   ○ and ​ ​controllable​ ​versus​ ​uncontrollable   For ​ ​this​ ​discussion,​ ​we​ ​focus​ ​only​ ​on​ ​the​ ​internal/external​ ​dimension   ● When ​ ​people​ ​ascribe​ ​the​ ​causes​ ​of​ ​someone’s​ ​behavior​ ​to​ ​personal​ ​dispositions,​ ​traits,  abilities, ​ ​or​ ​feelings,​ ​they​ ​are​ ​making​ ​​internal   attributions .  
background image ● When ​ ​they​ ​impute​ ​the​ ​causes​ ​of​ ​a​ ​person’s​ ​behavior​ ​to​ ​situational​ ​demands​ ​and  environmental ​ ​constraints,​ ​they​ ​are​ ​making​ ​​external   attributions .   ● The ​ ​types​ ​of​ ​attributions​ ​people​ ​make​ ​about​ ​others​ ​can​ ​have​ ​a​ ​tremendous​ ​impact​ ​on  everyday ​ ​social​ ​interactions.   ● Obviously, ​ ​people​ ​don’t​ ​make​ ​attributions​ ​about​ ​every​ ​person​ ​they​ ​meet.​ ​Research  suggests ​ ​that​ ​people​ ​are​ ​relatively​ ​selective​ ​in​ ​this​ ​process   ● It ​ ​seems​ ​they​ ​are​ ​most​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​make​ ​attributions   ○ (1) ​ ​when​ ​others​ ​behave​ ​in​ ​unexpected​ ​or​ ​negative​ ​ways,   ○ (2) ​ ​when​ ​events​ ​are​ ​personally​ ​relevant,​ ​and   ○ (3) ​ ​when​ ​they​ ​are​ ​suspicious​ ​about​ ​another​ ​person’s​ ​motives.   ● Perceivers ​ ​may​ ​agree​ ​on​ ​the​ ​nature​ ​of​ ​people’s​ ​behavior​ ​but​ ​because​ ​of​ ​their​ ​own  implicit ​ ​biases​ ​get​ ​the​ ​cause​ ​of​ ​the​ ​behavior​ ​wrong   Perceiver ​ ​Expectations   Two ​ ​of​ ​the​ ​principles​ ​governing​ ​perceiver​ ​expectations:   ● confirmation ​ ​bias​ ​and   ● self-fulfilling ​ ​prophecy  Confirmation ​ ​Bias   ● Shortly ​ ​after​ ​you​ ​begin​ ​interacting​ ​with​ ​someone,​ ​you​ ​start​ ​forming​ ​hypotheses​ ​about  what ​ ​the​ ​person​ ​is​ ​like.​ ​In​ ​turn,​ ​these​ ​hypotheses​ ​can​ ​influence​ ​your​ ​behavior​ ​toward  that ​ ​person​ ​in​ ​such​ ​a​ ​way​ ​as​ ​to​ ​confirm​ ​your​ ​expectations.   ○ Confirmation   bias ​​   ​​ is  the tendency to seek information that supports one’s  beliefs  while not pursuing disconfirming information  ● It ​ ​occurs​ ​in​ ​casual​ ​social​ ​interactions​ ​and​ ​in​ ​gender​ ​relations​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​in​ ​job​ ​interviews  and ​ ​in​ ​courtrooms,​ ​where​ ​the​ ​interviewer​ ​or​ ​attorney​ ​may​ ​ask​ ​leading​ ​questions   ● When ​ ​it​ ​comes​ ​to​ ​forming​ ​first​ ​impressions​ ​of​ ​others,​ ​the​ ​principle​ ​is​ ​not​ ​so​ ​much​ ​“seeing  is ​ ​believing”​ ​as​ ​“believing​ ​is​ ​seeing”,​ ​and​ ​some​ ​people​ ​may​ ​be​ ​more​ ​susceptible​ ​to  displaying ​ ​confirmation​ ​biases​ ​than​ ​others.   ○ In ​ ​other​ ​words,​ ​some​ ​people’s​ ​personalities​ ​may​ ​predispose​ ​them​ ​to​ ​focus​ ​on  facts ​ ​that​ ​fit​ ​their​ ​theories​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​weighing​ ​all​ ​of​ ​the​ ​available​ ​information  more ​ ​critically.   ● Confirmation ​ ​bias​ ​also​ ​occurs​ ​because​ ​individuals​ ​selectively​ ​recall​ ​facts​ ​to​ ​fit​ ​their​ ​views  of ​ ​others.   ● Can ​ ​a​ ​confirmation​ ​bias​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to​ ​characterize​ ​perceptions​ ​of​ ​group​ ​behaviors​ ​as​ ​well  as ​ ​individual​ ​actions?​ ​Apparently​ ​so.   ● There ​ ​is​ ​some​ ​evidence​ ​that​ ​intentionally​ ​presenting​ ​people​ ​with​ ​information​ ​that​ ​is  inconsistent ​ ​with​ ​their​ ​perceptions​ ​and​ ​preferences​ ​can​ ​encourage​ ​them​ ​to​ ​engage​ ​in  more ​ ​divergent​ ​thinking,​ ​but​ ​this​ ​is​ ​unlikely​ ​to​ ​happen​ ​very​ ​often​ ​in​ ​daily​ ​life.   Self-Fulfilling ​ ​Prophecies   ● Sometimes ​ ​a​ ​perceiver’s​ ​expectations​ ​can​ ​actually​ ​change​ ​another​ ​person’s​ ​behavior   ○ A  ​​self-fulfilling   prophecy   ​​ occurs  when expectations about a person cause  him  or her to behave in ways that confirm the expectations.   ○ This ​ ​term​ ​was​ ​originally​ ​coined​ ​by​ ​sociologist​ ​​Robert​ ​Merton​ ​​(1948)​ ​to​ ​explain  phenomena ​ ​such​ ​as​ ​“runs”​ ​on​ ​banks​ ​that​ ​occurred​ ​during​ ​the​ ​Depression.  
background image ● three ​ ​steps​ ​in​ ​a​ ​self-fulfilling​ ​prophecy.   ○ 1)First, ​ ​the​ ​perceiver​ ​has​ ​an​ ​initial​ ​impression​ ​of​ ​someone.  ○ 2)Then ​ ​the​ ​perceiver​ ​behaves​ ​toward​ ​the​ ​target​ ​person​ ​according​ ​to​ ​his​ ​or​ ​her  expectations.   ○ 3)The ​ ​third​ ​step​ ​occurs​ ​when​ ​the​ ​target​ ​person​ ​adjusts​ ​his​ ​or​ ​her​ ​behavior​ ​to​ ​the  perceiver’s ​ ​actions,​ ​confirming​ ​the​ ​perceiver’s​ ​hypothesis​ ​about​ ​the​ ​target  person.   ● Note ​ ​that​ ​both​ ​individuals​ ​are​ ​unaware​ ​that​ ​this​ ​process​ ​is​ ​operating.   ● Also ​ ​note​ ​that​ ​because​ ​perceivers​ ​are​ ​unaware​ ​of​ ​their​ ​expectations​ ​and​ ​of​ ​the​ ​effect  they ​ ​can​ ​have​ ​on​ ​others,​ ​they​ ​mistakenly​ ​attribute​ ​the​ ​target​ ​person’s​ ​behavior​ ​to​ ​an  internal ​ ​cause,​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​an​ ​external​ ​one​ ​(their​ ​own​ ​expectations).   Cognitive ​ ​Distortions   ● Another ​ ​source​ ​of​ ​error​ ​in​ ​person​ ​perception​ ​comes​ ​from​ ​distortions​ ​in​ ​the​ ​minds​ ​of  perceivers.   ● These ​ ​errors​ ​in​ ​judgment​ ​are​ ​most​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​occur​ ​when​ ​a​ ​perceiver​ ​is​ ​in​ ​a​ ​hurry,​ ​is  distracted, ​ ​or​ ​is​ ​not​ ​motivated​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​careful​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​another​ ​person  Social ​ ​Categorization   ● One ​ ​of​ ​the​ ​ways​ ​people​ ​efficiently​ ​process​ ​information​ ​is​ ​to​ ​classify​ ​objects​ ​(and​ ​people)  according ​ ​to​ ​their​ ​distinctive​ ​features.   ○ Thus, ​ ​people​ ​quite​ ​often​ ​categorize​ ​others​ ​on​ ​the​ ​basis​ ​of​ ​nationality,​ ​race,  ethnicity, ​ ​gender,​ ​age,​ ​religion,​ ​sexual​ ​orientation,​ ​and​ ​so​ ​forth   ○ People  classify those who are similar to them as members of their ​​ingroup  (“us”) ​ ​and   ○ those  who are dissimilar to them as being in the ​​outgroup   ​​ (“them”).   ○ Such ​ ​categorizing​ ​has​ ​three​ ​important​ ​results.   ■ First, ​ ​people​ ​usually​ ​have​ ​less​ ​favorable​ ​attitudes​ ​toward​ ​outgroup  members ​ ​than​ ​ingroup​ ​members,​ ​such​ ​that​ ​empathic​ ​reactions​ ​to​ ​those  perceived ​ ​to​ ​be​ ​in​ ​their​ ​ingroup​ ​are​ ​often​ ​exaggerated   ■ Second, ​ ​individuals​ ​usually​ ​see​ ​outgroup​ ​members​ ​as​ ​being​ ​much​ ​more  alike ​ ​than​ ​they​ ​really​ ​are,​ ​whereas​ ​they​ ​see​ ​members​ ​of​ ​their​ ​ingroup​ ​as  unique ​ ​individuals   ● In ​ ​other​ ​words,​ ​people​ ​frequently​ ​explain​ ​the​ ​behavior​ ​of​ ​outgroup  members ​ ​on​ ​the​ ​basis​ ​of​ ​the​ ​characteristic​ ​that​ ​sets​ ​them​ ​apart  (“Those ​ ​Nerdians​ ​are​ ​all​ ​drunks”)​ ​but​ ​attribute​ ​the​ ​same​ ​behavior  by ​ ​an​ ​ingroup​ ​member​ ​to​ ​individual​ ​personality​ ​traits​ ​(“Brett​ ​is​ ​a  heavy ​ ​drinker”).   ● This ​ ​phenomenon,​ ​in​ ​which​ ​others​ ​are​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​“all​ ​alike”​ ​and  one’s ​ ​own​ ​group​ ​is​ ​perceived​ ​to​ ​be​ ​“diverse,”​ ​is​ ​termed​ ​the  outgroup   homogeneity   effect   ■ The ​ ​third​ ​result​ ​of​ ​categorizing​ ​is​ ​that​ ​it​ ​heightens​ ​the​ ​visibility​ ​of​ ​outgroup  members ​ ​when​ ​there​ ​are​ ​only​ ​a​ ​few​ ​of​ ​them​ ​within​ ​a​ ​larger​ ​group.  
background image ● In ​ ​other​ ​words,​ ​minority​ ​group​ ​status​ ​in​ ​a​ ​group​ ​makes​ ​more  salient ​ ​the​ ​quality​ ​that​ ​distinguishes​ ​the​ ​person—ethnicity,​ ​gender,  whatever.   ● When ​ ​people​ ​are​ ​perceived​ ​as​ ​being​ ​unique​ ​or​ ​distinctive,​ ​they  are ​ ​also​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​gaining​ ​more​ ​attention​ ​in​ ​a​ ​group,​ ​and​ ​their​ ​good  and ​ ​bad​ ​qualities​ ​are​ ​given​ ​extra​ ​weight.   ■ Significantly, ​ ​distinctiveness—some​ ​quality​ ​that​ ​makes​ ​one​ ​person​ ​stand  out ​ ​from​ ​others—can​ ​also​ ​trigger​ ​stereotyping.     Stereotypes   ● Stereotypes   ​​ are  widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics  because  of their membership in a particular group.   ● Subtypes   ​​ are ​ ​categories​ ​people​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​for​ ​understanding​ ​those​ ​who​ ​do​ ​not​ ​fit​ ​their  general ​ ​stereotypes.  ● There ​ ​is​ ​also​ ​some​ ​intriguing​ ​new​ ​evidence​ ​that​ ​imagining​ ​an​ ​encounter​ ​between  oneself ​ ​and​ ​an​ ​outgroup​ ​member​ ​can​ ​reduce​ ​hostile​ ​feelings​ ​linked​ ​to​ ​stereotyping.  ○ The ​ ​imagined​ ​encounters​ ​promoted​ ​feelings​ ​of​ ​warmth​ ​and​ ​competence​ ​toward  the ​ ​members​ ​of​ ​groups​ ​usually​ ​dehumanized   ■ (e.g., ​ ​poor​ ​people),​ ​envied​ ​(e.g.,​ ​wealthy​ ​people),​ ​or​ ​otherwise​ ​targeted  for ​ ​condescending​ ​behavior​ ​(e.g.,​ ​elderly​ ​people).   ● Stereotypes ​ ​also​ ​endure​ ​because​ ​of​ ​confirmation​ ​bias.   ○ Thus, ​ ​when​ ​individuals​ ​encounter​ ​members​ ​of​ ​groups​ ​that​ ​they​ ​view​ ​with  prejudice, ​ ​they​ ​are​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​see​ ​what​ ​they​ ​expect​ ​to​ ​see.   ● Self-fulfilling ​ ​prophecy​ ​is​ ​a​ ​third​ ​reason​ ​stereotypes​ ​persist:​ ​Beliefs​ ​about​ ​another​ ​person  may ​ ​actually​ ​elicit​ ​the​ ​anticipated​ ​behavior​ ​and​ ​thus​ ​confirm​ ​biased​ ​expectations.     The ​ ​Fundamental​ ​Attribution​ ​Error  ● When ​ ​explaining​ ​the​ ​causes​ ​of​ ​others’​ ​behavior,​ ​people​ ​invoke​ ​personal​ ​attributions​ ​and  discount ​ ​the​ ​importance​ ​of​ ​situational​ ​factors.  ● it ​ ​is​ ​strong​ ​enough​ ​that​ ​Lee​ ​Ross​ ​(1977)​ ​called​ ​it​ ​the​ ​​“fundamental   attribution   error.”   ○ The  ​​fundamental   attribution   error   ​​ refers  to the tendency to explain other  people’s  behavior as the result of personal, rather than situational, factors.  ■ This ​ ​tendency​ ​sometimes​ ​termed​ ​correspondence​ ​bias;​ ​differs​ ​from  stereotyping ​ ​in​ ​that​ ​inferences​ ​are​ ​based​ ​on​ ​actual​ ​behavior.   ■ Nonetheless, ​ ​those​ ​inferences​ ​may​ ​still​ ​be​ ​inaccurate.   ○ a ​ ​person’s​ ​behavior​ ​at​ ​a​ ​given​ ​time​ ​may​ ​or​ ​may​ ​not​ ​reflect​ ​his​ ​or​ ​her​ ​personality  or ​ ​character—but​ ​observers​ ​tend​ ​to​ ​assume​ ​that​ ​it​ ​does.   ○ The ​ ​situations​ ​people​ ​encounter​ ​can​ ​have​ ​profound​ ​effects​ ​on​ ​their​ ​behavior,  often ​ ​overpowering​ ​the​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​their​ ​dispositions—​ ​they​ ​just​ ​don’t​ ​realize​ ​it   ● What’s ​ ​behind​ ​this​ ​tendency​ ​to​ ​discount​ ​situational​ ​influences​ ​on​ ​people’s​ ​behavior?   ● Once ​ ​again,​ ​the​ ​culprit​ ​is​ ​people’s​ ​tendency​ ​to​ ​be​ ​cognitive​ ​misers.​ ​It​ ​seems​ ​that​ ​making  attributions ​ ​is​ ​a​ ​two-step​ ​process  
background image ○ in ​ ​the​ ​first​ ​step,​ ​which​ ​occurs​ ​automatically,​ ​observers​ ​make​ ​an​ ​internal  attribution ​ ​because​ ​they​ ​are​ ​focusing​ ​on​ ​the​ ​person​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​the​ ​situation.​ ​(At  your ​ ​bank,​ ​if​ ​you​ ​observe​ ​the​ ​man​ ​ahead​ ​of​ ​you​ ​yell​ ​at​ ​the​ ​teller,​ ​you​ ​might​ ​infer  that ​ ​he​ ​is​ ​a​ ​hostile​ ​person.)   ○ In ​ ​the​ ​second​ ​step,​ ​observers​ ​weigh​ ​the​ ​impact​ ​of​ ​the​ ​situation​ ​on​ ​the​ ​target  person’s ​ ​behavior​ ​and​ ​adjust​ ​their​ ​inference.​ ​(If​ ​you​ ​overhear​ ​the​ ​customer​ ​claim  this ​ ​is​ ​the​ ​third​ ​time​ ​in​ ​three​ ​weeks​ ​that​ ​the​ ​bank​ ​has​ ​made​ ​the​ ​same​ ​error​ ​in​ ​his  account, ​ ​you’re​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​temper​ ​your​ ​initial​ ​judgment​ ​about​ ​his​ ​hostile  tendencies.)   ● The ​ ​first​ ​step​ ​in​ ​the​ ​attribution​ ​process​ ​occurs​ ​spontaneously,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​second​ ​step  requires ​ ​cognitive​ ​effort​ ​and​ ​attention.​ ​Thus,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​stop​ ​after​ ​step​ ​one—especially  if ​ ​one​ ​is​ ​in​ ​a​ ​hurry​ ​or​ ​distracted.   ● Failure ​ ​to​ ​take​ ​the​ ​effortful​ ​second​ ​step​ ​can​ ​result​ ​in​ ​the​ ​fundamental​ ​attribution​ ​error.   ● However, ​ ​when​ ​people​ ​are​ ​motivated​ ​to​ ​form​ ​accurate​ ​impressions​ ​of​ ​others​ ​or​ ​when  they ​ ​are​ ​suspicious​ ​about​ ​another’s​ ​motives,​ ​they​ ​do​ ​expend​ ​the​ ​effort​ ​to​ ​complete​ ​the  second ​ ​step.   ● Some ​ ​evidence​ ​suggests​ ​that​ ​these​ ​two​ ​steps​ ​may​ ​be​ ​related​ ​to​ ​different​ ​types​ ​of​ ​brain  activity   ● Cultural ​ ​values​ ​seem​ ​to​ ​promote​ ​different​ ​attributional​ ​errors.   ○ In ​ ​individualistic​ ​cultures,​ ​where​ ​independence​ ​is​ ​valued,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​assumed​ ​that  individuals ​ ​are​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​their​ ​actions.   ○ In ​ ​collectivist​ ​societies,​ ​conformity​ ​and​ ​obedience​ ​to​ ​group​ ​norms​ ​are​ ​valued,​ ​so  it ​ ​is​ ​assumed​ ​that​ ​an​ ​individual’s​ ​behavior​ ​reflects​ ​adherence​ ​to​ ​group  expectations   ● Some ​ ​experts​ ​speculate​ ​that​ ​different​ ​styles​ ​of​ ​thinking​ ​underlie​ ​cultural​ ​differences​ ​in  attributional ​ ​styles.   ● They ​ ​suggest​ ​that​ ​the​ ​Western​ ​mentality​ ​is​ ​analytical​ ​(attention​ ​is​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​an​ ​object,  and ​ ​causality​ ​is​ ​ascribed​ ​to​ ​it),   ● whereas ​ ​the​ ​East​ ​Asian​ ​mentality​ ​is​ ​holistic​ ​(attention​ ​is​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​field​ ​surrounding  an ​ ​object,​ ​and​ ​causality​ ​is​ ​understood​ ​to​ ​reside​ ​in​ ​the​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​the​ ​object  and ​ ​its​ ​field)   ○ Consistent ​ ​with​ ​both​ ​of​ ​these​ ​views,​ ​researchers​ ​have​ ​found​ ​that​ ​Americans  explain ​ ​others’​ ​behavior​ ​in​ ​terms​ ​of​ ​internal​ ​attributions​ ​more​ ​often​ ​than​ ​Hindus,  Chinese, ​ ​Japanese,​ ​or​ ​Koreans.   ● Religion, ​ ​too,​ ​may​ ​matter​ ​where​ ​the​ ​fundamental​ ​attribution​ ​error​ ​is​ ​concerned.​ ​Li​ ​and  colleagues ​ ​found​ ​that​ ​Protestants​ ​are​ ​more​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​make​ ​internal​ ​attributions​ ​than  Roman ​ ​Catholics,​ ​presumably​ ​because​ ​Protestantism​ ​focuses​ ​more​ ​on​ ​the​ ​inward  condition ​ ​of​ ​the​ ​soul.    Defensive  Attribution  ● Observers ​ ​are​ ​especially​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​make​ ​internal​ ​attributions​ ​in​ ​trying​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​the  calamities ​ ​and​ ​tragedies​ ​that​ ​befall​ ​other​ ​people.  
background image ● Defensive   attribution   ​​ is  a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that  one  feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way.    Key  Themes in Person Perception  ● The ​ ​process​ ​of​ ​​person   perception how people mentally construe each others’  behavior ​—is​ ​a​ ​complex​ ​one   ● Nonetheless, ​ ​we​ ​can​ ​detect​ ​three​ ​recurrent​ ​themes​ ​in​ ​this​ ​process:​ ​efficiency,​ ​selectivity,  and ​ ​consistency   ● Efficiency   ○ In ​ ​forming​ ​impressions​ ​of​ ​others,​ ​people​ ​prefer​ ​to​ ​exert​ ​no​ ​more​ ​cognitive​ ​effort  or ​ ​time​ ​than​ ​is​ ​necessary.​ ​Thus,​ ​much​ ​social​ ​information​ ​is​ ​processed  automatically ​ ​and​ ​effortlessly.   ○ two ​ ​important​ ​advantages:   ■ People ​ ​can​ ​make​ ​judgments​ ​quickly,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​keeps​ ​things​ ​simple.   ■ The ​ ​big​ ​disadvantage​ ​is​ ​that​ ​snap​ ​judgments​ ​are​ ​error-prone.   ■ Still, ​ ​on​ ​balance,​ ​efficiency​ ​works​ ​pretty​ ​well​ ​as​ ​an​ ​operating​ ​principle.   ● Selectivity   ○ The ​ ​old​ ​saying​ ​that​ ​“people​ ​see​ ​what​ ​they​ ​expect​ ​to​ ​see”​ ​has​ ​been​ ​confirmed  repeatedly ​ ​by​ ​social​ ​scientists.   ■ In ​ ​a​ ​classic​ ​study,​ ​Harold​ ​Kelley​ ​showed​ ​how​ ​a​ ​person​ ​is​ ​preceded​ ​by​ ​his  or ​ ​her​ ​reputation.   ● Students ​ ​in​ ​a​ ​class​ ​at​ ​the​ ​Massachusetts​ ​Institute​ ​of​ ​Technology  were ​ ​told​ ​that​ ​a​ ​new​ ​lecturer​ ​would​ ​be​ ​speaking​ ​to​ ​them​ ​that​ ​day.  Before ​ ​the​ ​instructor​ ​arrived,​ ​the​ ​students​ ​were​ ​given​ ​a​ ​short  description ​ ​of​ ​him,​ ​with​ ​one​ ​important​ ​variation.​ ​Half​ ​the​ ​students  were ​ ​led​ ​to​ ​expect​ ​a​ ​“warm”​ ​person,​ ​while​ ​the​ ​other​ ​half​ ​were​ ​led  to ​ ​expect​ ​a​ ​“cold”​ ​one.​ ​All​ ​the​ ​participants​ ​were​ ​exposed​ ​to​ ​exactly  the ​ ​same​ ​20​ ​minutes​ ​of​ ​lecture​ ​and​ ​interaction​ ​with​ ​the​ ​new  instructor. ​ ​However,​ ​those​ ​who​ ​were​ ​led​ ​to​ ​expect​ ​a​ ​warm​ ​person  rated ​ ​the​ ​instructor​ ​as​ ​significantly​ ​more​ ​considerate,​ ​sociable,  humorous, ​ ​good-natured,​ ​informal,​ ​and​ ​humane​ ​than​ ​those​ ​who  expected ​ ​a​ ​cold​ ​person.  ● Consistency   ○ Considerable ​ ​research​ ​supports​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​that​ ​first​ ​impressions​ ​are​ ​powerful   ● A ​ ​​primacy   effect   ​​ occurs  when initial information carries more weight than  subsequent  information.   ○ Primacy ​ ​effects​ ​are​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​occur​ ​when​ ​perceivers—the​ ​people​ ​who​ ​meet​ ​us​ ​for  the ​ ​first​ ​time—are​ ​in​ ​good​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​bad​ ​moods.   ○ Initial ​ ​negative​ ​impressions​ ​may​ ​be​ ​especially​ ​hard​ ​to​ ​change     “Old-Fashioned” ​ ​Versus​ ​Modern​ ​Discrimination 

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School: University of Rhode Island
Department: Psychology
Course: Toward self-understanding
Professor: Lyn Stein
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology, 103, Studyguide, midterm, notes, exam, Lecture, and Lecture Notes
Name: PSY 103 Study Guide for Exam #2
Description: This study guide covers everything that will be on the exam this Wednesday. From chapter 7- 11 you will find all the key terms and definitions, important names to know and also all the information you need to pass the exam.
Uploaded: 10/29/2017
54 Pages 83 Views 66 Unlocks
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