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UF - CHM 1025 - CHM Ch 6+7 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UF - CHM 1025 - CHM Ch 6+7 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: University of Florida
Department: Chemistry
Course: Introduction to Chemistry
Professor: Melanie Veige
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: MCAT General Chemistry, General Chemistry, and Math
Name: CHM Ch 6+7 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover whats going to be on our next exam. Ch.7 is incomplete because Roland will go over it on Tuesday.
Uploaded: 10/29/2017
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background image             CHM1025----Intro. To Chemistry Study Guide for Exam on Nov.1st         ©Philip Ambattu   
        
                Terms to know for the exam 
                      
1.  actual yield - the amount of product actually obtained in the laboratory from a reaction. 
2.  endothermic reaction - a chemical change that absorbs heat. 
3.  exothermic reaction - a chemical change that releases heat. 
4.  heat - the energy that is transferred between objects due to a difference in their temperatures. 
5.  law of conservation of energy - a law stating that energy can be converted from one form to another, or 
transferred, but it cannot be created or destroyed.  6.  limiting reactant - the reactant that is completely used up in the reaction, therefore determines the # other  reactants that react and the products that should form.  7.  percent yield - the ratio of the amount of product actually formed in a reaction to what is predicted by  stoichiometry, multiplied by 100%.  8.  specific heat - a property that is a measure of the # of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a  substance by 1°C.  9.  stoichiometry - the use of quantitative relationships between substances involved in a chemical reaction to  determine the amount of a reactant or product.  10. Theoretical yield: theoretical yield - the maximum amount of product that can be obtained in a chemical  reaction from known amounts of reactants; the amount of product calculated by assuming all the limiting 
reactant is consumed. 
11.  atomic radius - a measure of atomic size; the distance from the nucleus to the outer edge of the atom. 
12.  aufbau principle - an approach to writing ground-state electron configurations of atoms by filling orbitals 
that are lowest in energy first; means “building up” in German.  13. continuous spectrum - a spectrum in which all the visible wavelengths are present. 
14. core electron - an electron in an atom that is not a valence electron; an inner electron. 
15. electromagnetic radiation - a form of energy that can be described in terms of oscillating waves that move 
through space at the speed of light; also called light or radiant energy.  16. electron configuration - a description of the distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals or sublevels 
17. frequency - the number of wave cycles passing a stationary point in 1 second. 
18. ground state - the state of lowest energy in an atom where the electrons occupy orbitals that are lowest in 
energy.  19. hertz (Hz) - a unit of frequency equal to 1/s, or cycles per second. 
20. Hund’s rule - a rule stating that electrons are distributed in a set of orbitals of identical energy in a way to 
give the maximum number of unpaired electrons.  21. ionization energy - the minimum energy required to remove a valence electron from a gaseous atom / ion;  usually reported in kJ/mol.  22. isoelectronic - having the same number of electrons. 
23. line spectrum - a spectrum produced by a substance in which only certain wavelengths are present. 
24. orbital - a three-dimensional region in space around a nucleus where an electron is likely to be found. 
25. Pauli exclusion principle - a principle stating that a maximum of two electrons can occupy an orbital,+ the 
electrons must have opposite spin.  26. photon - the smallest packet of energy that describes the energy of a specific type of electromagnetic  radiation.  27. principal energy level - an energy level containing a set of electrons in orbitals of similar sizes. 
28. valence electron - an electron in the highest principal energy level, the valence level. 
29. wavelength - the distance between two corresponding points (such as the crests) on a wave. 
 
background image             
 
           
                       From previous lecture: Great Flow Chart to remember and use for conversions 
 
 
 
           Molecules                                 Moles                              Masses 
 
 
 
 
                 Mole-Mole Conversions 
 
                    2Al(s) + 6HNO
3  → 2Al(NO 3 ) 3  + 3H 2    
              First, always make sure the equation is balances, like it is above. 
 
              Problem: If 3 mol Al react completely, how many mol H2 will be produced? 
              Ans: Multiply the mol amount of Al by a fraction that has original number of moles of H2 and Al from  
                       Equation in problem. 
                       3 mol Al (3 mol H2/2 mol Al) = 9/2=4.5 mol H2. 
              Solution: 4.5 mol H
2    
    
                 Mass-Mass Conversions 
 
                  
***The general formula to convert from a Mass A to a Mass B is as follows (as evidenced from flow chart): 
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
Problem: 2 Na(s) + Cl
2  → 2NaCl(s)   
                If 9.0 g Na is there, how much Cl2 do I need to completely consume sodium? 
 
Ans: (USE FORMULA ABOVE) 
        9.0 g Na/22.99g/mol = 0.391 mol Na →(0.391 mol Na x (1mol Cl
2 /2 mol Na))= .196 mol Cl 2    
 
        → (.196 mol Cl
2  x 70.9 g/mol)= 13.9 g Cl 2    
 
Solution: 13.9 g Cl
     

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School: University of Florida
Department: Chemistry
Course: Introduction to Chemistry
Professor: Melanie Veige
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: MCAT General Chemistry, General Chemistry, and Math
Name: CHM Ch 6+7 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover whats going to be on our next exam. Ch.7 is incomplete because Roland will go over it on Tuesday.
Uploaded: 10/29/2017
6 Pages 75 Views 60 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
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