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Towson - PSYC 305 - Class Notes - Week 9

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Towson - PSYC 305 - Class Notes - Week 9

School: Towson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Learning
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Name: PSYC 305- Week 9 Notes
Description: These are all the notes covered during Week 9.
Uploaded: 10/29/2017
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background image o Sequential Hypothesis PRE occurs because of difference in the order of cues during 
training
During training, a behavior is followed by either: Reinforcement or nonreinforcement In continuous schedules, each behavior is followed by 
reinforcement, which become a cue for behavior
So, extinction occurs quickly because an important cue for 
performance is missing
In intermittent schedules, the sequence of reinforcement and 
nonreinforcement becomes the cue for behavior
So extinction is difficult because long stings of unreinforced 
behavior have previously and reliably come before 
reinforcement
Complex Schedules o Various combinations of simple schedules o Multiple Schedule: 2 or more simple schedules in effect, each cued by a 
particular stimulus
o Cooperative Schedule: reinforcement depends on the behavior of 2 or 
more individuals
o Concurrent Schedule: 2 or more schedules are available to the individual
at once
Choice and Matching Law o Can we predict behavior based on the schedules of reinforcement that are in place? o After testing out different options, organisms will select the option offering  the highest rate of reinforcement Switching back and forth does not make sense in concurrent 
schedules when both are on a Fixed Ratio
Switching back and forth does make sense when concurrent 
schedules involve two fixed interval schedules
This is also true for variable interval schedules Book’s reflections on schedules research o Artificial and not reflective of the real world o Helps us to understand certain personality characteristics o Answers important questions about behavior Is frequency of reinforcement or amount of reinforcement more 
important? The frequency is
Chapter 8: Punishment Punishment o Learning not to do things
background image o Most of the aversive outcomes that happen to us are a result of our own  behavior o Use of aversive consequences to suppress unwanted behavior is a very  common procedure o Definition: A practice used to decrease the strength of a behavior through  consequences o Necessary characteristics: 1. A behavior must have a consequence
2. The behavior must decrease in frequency (e.g. occur less often)
3. The reduction in strength of a behavior must occur as a result of the consequence o Punishers: aversive stimuli that organisms will seek to escape or avoid if 
possible (something that is not desired by the organism)
o Positive Punishment Something aversive is “added” to the situation to make a behavior 
less likely to occur
Ex. If you’re late to practice, you have to run a lap o Negative Punishment Something pleasurable is “subtracted” from the situation to make a 
situation less likely to occur
Variables affecting punishment o Contingency The degree to which a punishment is dependent upon the 
occurrence of behavior (if you do this, this will happen as a 
consequence; a consequence always following a behavior)
Greater degree of contingency = faster behavior change o Contiguity The interval between a behavior and a punishing consequence The longer the delay, the slower the learning Immediate punishment will maximize effect o Intensity The strength of the aversive Stronger intensity punishment yields more effective behavior 
change
o Introductory level of punishment: Beginning intensity is very important If starting with a weak punishment and gradually increasing, 
organism will endure levels that may have stopped behavior if used
to start 
organism begins to grow more tolerance for the different 
levels of punishments if punisher starts off with weak 
punishment then gradually increases the intensity of the 
punishment

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School: Towson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Learning
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Name: PSYC 305- Week 9 Notes
Description: These are all the notes covered during Week 9.
Uploaded: 10/29/2017
5 Pages 42 Views 33 Unlocks
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