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LUC / OTHER / BIO 101 / What are inhibitors in biology?

What are inhibitors in biology?

What are inhibitors in biology?

Description

School: Loyola University Chicago
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Biology
Professor: Angela gschwend
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Biology, bio101, Bio, and Biology101
Cost: 25
Name: Biology Week 9 Notes
Description: Week 9 in class notes were about chapters eight and nine. In addition, we began practicing problem solving using case studies.
Uploaded: 10/29/2017
2 Pages 83 Views 1 Unlocks
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li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-6,decimal) ". 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"}ul.lst-kix_58nvdck6qyfb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dcrigooeyv84-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ywl6296enkrx-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ywl6296enkrx-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ywl6296enkrx-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j32qao2vx5od-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zar9shyb289a-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j32qao2vx5od-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j32qao2vx5od-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_j32qao2vx5od-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m6io0mmej1ip-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zar9shyb289a-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_zar9shyb289a-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-0 0}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zar9shyb289a-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-1}.lst-kix_cy1axibyrtab-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_zar9shyb289a-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_zar9shyb289a-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o43dujqk3btg-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sk1jl46uzg2g-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sk1jl46uzg2g-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o43dujqk3btg-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i2viywhnxi4g-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_o43dujqk3btg-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sk1jl46uzg2g-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o43dujqk3btg-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kwpw6tvpsry9-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sk1jl46uzg2g-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i5wox1qu5xr0-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_kwpw6tvpsry9-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y3qlu224ilbu-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m6io0mmej1ip-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i2viywhnxi4g-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kwpw6tvpsry9-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kwpw6tvpsry9-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-0}.lst-kix_y3qlu224ilbu-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_y3qlu224ilbu-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i2viywhnxi4g-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i2viywhnxi4g-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m6io0mmej1ip-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m6io0mmej1ip-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j32qao2vx5od-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_e62kt9xswy8u-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m6io0mmej1ip-4 > li:before{content:"- "}

Chapter 8 In Class

  • Inhibitors are either irreversible or reversible

If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of statically indeterminate shaft??

Competitive: inhibitor competes with substrate

Noncompetitive: inhibitor doesn’t have to compete

Localization of Enzymes

  • Helps bring order to metabolic pathways
  • Reside in mitochondria and chloroplasts

If you want to learn more check out The trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system is referred to as?

Chapter 9 In Class

  • Living is work, so cells must generate fuel (ATP)
  • Catabolic pathways

If you want to learn more check out Know the definition of anomie.

Cellular respirationWe also discuss several other topics like Who is olga sergeyevna?

Organic compounds + O2 → CO2 + H2O + energyDon't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the chicano renaissance?
If you want to learn more check out What are the types of vertebrae?

If glucose is used as fuel

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)

  • Exergonic (G = -686 kcal / mol glucose)
  • Catabolic pathways yield E through e- transfers and releasing stored (potential E) to synthesize ATP
  • Redox rxn

Example: Redox Rxn

Na + CL → Na+ + CL-

Oxidation = loss of e-        Xe- → X + e-

Reduction = addition of e-        X + e- → Xe-

Na = electron donor = reducing agent

CL = electron recipient = oxidizing agent

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

PE in electrons → PE in ATP

PE in e- → chem E to do work

  • Fuel is gradually broken down
  • E- are moved in steps via NaD+

ATP is made through

  • Substrate level phosphorylation
  • Glycolysis and Kreb allele
  • Enzyme transfers Pi from substrate to ADP
  • Oxidative phosphorylation
  • ETC + Chemiosmosis

Glycolysis         glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ → 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH

  • Glucose activation: energy investing step
  • Uses 2 ATP
  • Energy extraction: energy harvesting step
  • Produces 4 ATP
  • Net ATP = 2 ATP
  • Energy extraction from PGAL + production of pyruvate
  • Connects to many other metabolic pathways after glycolysis
  • Aerobic cellular respiration: Krebs Cycle and electron transport (if oxygen is available)
  • Anaerobic cellular respiration (if no oxygen)
  • Fermentation
  • Pyruvate can undergo aerobic + anaerobic respiration

Aerobic

  • Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA in mitochondria

Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP

  • Large quantity of e- carriers
  • NADH and FADH2
  • Transfer e- transport chain also power ATP synthesis
  • Connects to many other metabolic pathways

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

  • Enzymes embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane
  • Couples e- transport to ATP synthesis
  • Doesn’t make ATP directly
  • ATP is synthesized via oxidative phosphorylation by ATP synthase
  • NADH transfers e- to the first molecule in ETC
  • FADH2 transfers e- to a later point in ETC

ATP Synthesis

  • ATP synthase
  • Makes ATP from ADP and Pi
  • Chemiosmosis (energy of protons)

Efficiency of cellular respiration

  • Complete oxidation of glucose: releases 686 kcal / mol
  • Formation of each ATP: 7.3 kcal / mol
  • 7.3 kcal / mol x 38 ATP / glucose = 277.4 kcal / mol
  • 277.4 / 686 = 40% potential E of glucose transferred to ATP
  • = 60% is lost as heat

Fermentation: forms 2 ATP

  • Generates ATP without oxygen and ETC
  • E- acceptors recycled
  • ATP only generated by substrate level phosphorylation
  • Lactic acid (lactate) vs. alcohol (ethanol)

Anaerobic respiration

  • Generates ATP without oxygen
  • ETC in can membrane with molecule other than oxygen at e- acceptor
  • Some prokaryotes
  • Chemiosmosis does not make ATP itself
  • Sets the stage for ATP synthesis
  • Electron carriers function as proton pumps
  • Energy from proton gradient fuels production of ATP
  • As e- move down ETC, decrease in free energy

Oxidative phosphorylation

  • Produces about 26 to 28 ATP (glycolysis: 2 ATP, Krebs cycle = 2 ATP)
  • Maximum per glucose: 30 to 32 ATP
  • Went over Patrick’s case study
  • PDCD

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