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UA / OTHER / ECOL 182 / hans otto university of arizona

hans otto university of arizona

hans otto university of arizona


School: University of Arizona
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Biology
Professor: Walsh, martinez
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Ecology, Biology: Ecology and Evolution, and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: ECOL 182R Exam 2 Study Guide Hans Otto Fall 2017
Description: Specific topics given by the professor to study for Exam 2
Uploaded: 10/30/2017
8 Pages 17 Views 22 Unlocks

ECOL​ ​182R​ ​Exam​ ​2​ ​Review

What are the three sections of stomach?

Hans​ ​Otto​ ​Fall​ ​2017

Topics​ ​to​ ​focus​ ​on 

● Flight

○ Lift, Thrust, Drag, Gravity

○ Consequences of Flight (Expensive)

■ Light wings help make flapping efficient

■ Light body= less force needed for thrust

■ Hindlimbs not necessary, for higher degrees of locomotion, so reduction selected for

■ Lift 

● Generated from forward motion

● Slower the forward motion, less lift = more energy to provide lift

(flap faster)

● Flight​ ​muscles

○ Physical structures in shoulder to stop hypertension

○ Lock against scapula during upstroke

○ Pectoralis muscle (downstroke)

○ Supracoracoideus (upstroke)

○ Other muscles involved: Tendon, Foramen triosseum, coracoid, sternum, humerus, scapula

● Amniotic​ ​Egg

○ Baby is developed inside the egg

What is carnassial?

○ Layers

■ Amnion 

■ Allantois 

■ Yolk​ ​sac 

■ Chorion 

● Monotreme

○ Most primitive order of mammals

○ Birdlike and reptilian features

○ Egg laying

● Major​ ​sections​ ​of​ ​mammals

○ Egg laying mammals

○ Long lactation period

● Placental​ ​Mammals 

○ Develop inside a placenta

○ Marsupial

○ Have a pouch

● Different​ ​types​ ​of​ ​locomotion 

○ Body shape reflects locomotor style

■ Cursorial: running, walking, and hopping

● Body Form:

○ Elongate limbs

○ Maintain high center of gravity

○ Reduce weight of extremities

■ Arboreal: climbing, scampering, brachiating(swinging) ● (ex. Scamperers, graspers)

■ Aquatic: swimming

● Body Form:

○ Smooth, fusiform body

○ Reduced pinnae

○ Vertebrae often fused

What are the two largest phylum?

○ Spine flexible

○ Flattened tail

○ Accessory structures (fins)

■ Aerial: flying, gliding If you want to learn more check out psych 1001

■ Fossorial: burrowing

■ Generalist: no specialization

● Body Form:

○ Low center of gravity

○ Shorter legs

○ Good all-purpose locomotor style

● Sangronivory​ ​(bats)

○ Very sharp front teeth

○ Anticoagulant in saliva

○ Heat- sensors in nose where blood is closest to skin ○ They can walk/run on the ground

● Granivores

○ Seed eaters (pocket mice, k-mice, k-rats)

○ Source of food and water from seeds

○ Large cheek pouches

○ High protein, high fat diet

● Ruminants​ ​vs​ ​Cecal​ ​Fermenters

○ Ruminants: Highly evolved stomach of multiple chambers ■ Foregut digestion

○ Cecal Fermenters: Large cecum, normal stomach

■ Hindgut fermentation

● 2​ ​proteins​ ​important​ ​for​ ​muscle​ ​production

● Myosin and actin

○ Myosin acts on actin

● 3​ ​sections​ ​of​ ​the​ ​stomach Don't forget about the age old question of soc 211 ub

○ Cardiac: Top section, esophagus

○ Fundus: Parietal Cells-HCl

○ Pyloris: Mucus Glands

● Various​ ​germ​ ​layers​ ​(adaptations​ ​and​ ​characteristics) ○ Single Cell Layer (sponges)

○ Diploblastic

■ 2 germ layers

■ Cnidarians and Ctenophores

● Triploblastic 

● 3 germ layers

● 3rd layer is the mesoderm

● All have a cavity type

● Cnidarians

○ Radial Symmetry

○ Diploblastic

○ Two forms:

■ Medusa

■ Polyp

○ Nerve Net

○ Gastrovascular Cavity

● Two​ ​largest​ ​phylum

○ Arthropoda 

■ ¾ of all known species of animals (over 1 million species) ■ Exoskeleton

■ Jointed limbs made from chitin

■ Major Groups: spiders, scorpions, crabs, insects, millipedes ● Mollusca 

○ Largest marine invertebrate phylum

○ Single body cavity used for breathing and excretion

○ Radula

○ Major Groups: snails, scallops, squid

● Chordate​ ​Characteristics

○ Notochord

○ Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord

○ Pharyngeal Gill Slit

○ Engostyle

○ Postanal Tail

Professor’s​ ​Questions 

1. Two​ ​teeth​ ​that​ ​are​ ​important​ ​for​ ​carnivores:​ ​What​ ​were​ ​they? ○ Carnassial: crushing bones and muscles

○ Canines: Gripping prey

2. What​ ​was​ ​the​ ​first​ ​reason​ ​that​ ​feathers​ ​evolved?

○ Modified scales

○ Same hormonal pathways and developmental pathways as scales ○ Adaptations for flight (features important for flight) If you want to learn more check out phi 1020 study guide

○ Hollow bones

○ Decreased amount of weight

○ Increased metabolism

○ Skeleton: Surface area on sternum of animals

3. What​ ​is​ ​it​ ​called​ ​when​ ​animals​ ​are​ ​occupying​ ​same​ ​habitat​ ​but​ ​using​ ​different portions​ ​of​ ​it?

○ Sympiatric

4. What​ ​would​ ​reduced​ ​carnassial​ ​teeth​ ​indicate?

○ Bear: More likely to be an omnivore

○ Not relying so much on that tooth to capture prey and crack bones 5. What​ ​would​ ​reduced​ ​carnassial​ ​teeth​ ​indicate?

6. Why​ ​are​ ​tendons​ ​so​ ​great?

○ Flex a tendon out you’ll get lots of Pe, skeletal muscles

○ What are the forces of flight and what are they?

7. What​ ​is​ ​it​ ​called​ ​when​ ​an​ ​animal​ ​ingests​ ​its​ ​own​ ​feces?

○ Coprophagy: reingestion of feces to get more nutrients We also discuss several other topics like psychology 2301 final exam

8. What​ ​type​ ​of​ ​muscles​ ​would​ ​you​ ​expect​ ​to​ ​be​ ​well​ ​developed​ ​in​ ​an​ ​herbivore’s jaw?

○ Masseter muscle

9. What​ ​type​ ​of​ ​muscles​ ​would​ ​you​ ​expect​ ​to​ ​be​ ​well​ ​developed​ ​in​ ​a​ ​carnivore’s​ ​jaw? ○ Temporalis

○ Large temporal arm lever

10. Fossorial​ ​Animal:​ ​What​ ​kind​ ​of​ ​adaptations​ ​would​ ​you​ ​expect​ ​it​ ​to​ ​have​ ​for​ ​that locomotion?

○ Body form/type:

i. Stout, short limbs

ii. Short tail

iii. Stocky body

iv. Reduced pinnae

v. Large claws

11. Choanoflagellate?​ ​And​ ​what’s​ ​important​ ​about​ ​it?

1. Ancestors of animals

ii. Which​ ​one​ ​wasn’t​ ​unique​ ​for​ ​chordates?

a. Flangel gill slits

12. What’s​ ​special​ ​about​ ​beatles​ ​(diversity)?

○ Really diverse (~400,000 species)

13. What​ ​was​ ​the​ ​last​ ​germ​ ​layer​ ​to​ ​evolve?

○ Mesoderm

14. Whats​ ​a​ ​synapsid?​ ​ ​(anapsid,​ ​synapsid,​ ​diapsid)

○ Mammal like reptiles

○ All 3 distinct groups are under amniotes

○ What’s​ ​the​ ​difference​ ​between​ ​all​ ​of​ ​those?

i. One hole in the skull: allows for stronger bite force

ii. Anapsids(ancient reptiles/turtles)

iii. Diapsids (reptiles and birds)

iv. Synapsids(mammals)

v. What’s​ ​so​ ​special​ ​about​ ​the​ ​mammalian​ ​jaw?

a. 1 bone

15. What’s​ ​the​ ​diff​ ​between​ ​protostome​ ​and​ ​deuterostome

○ Proto: Came first

16. Holometabolous​(complete metamorphosis) vs. hemimetabolous​ ​(incomplete metamorphosis) If you want to learn more check out mitochondria the sites of cellular respiration are found in
We also discuss several other topics like irving fuel genius

○ Holometabolous

i. Insects go through all stages (larva, pupa, adult)

ii. Wormlike (larvae)

○ Why did insects become diverse in the first place during the cretaceous period ○ Diversification of angiosperms, pollination coevolving with flowers

● Why​ ​is​ ​tiktaalik​ ​an​ ​important​ ​transitional​ ​fossil?

○ Fin and wrist

○ Earliest known tetrapod

○ Early amphibious vertebrates moved onto land but still tied to water

○ Drying ponds and lakes

● Foraging​ ​models:​ ​Which​ ​one​ ​compared​ ​costs​ ​and​ ​benefits​ ​of​ ​increased​ ​fitness? ○ Optimal foraging theory

■ Three major factors:

● Decisions during foraging

● Energetic Currency

● Constraints from animal foraging

● Look​ ​at​ ​an​ ​example​ ​of​ ​an​ ​animal​ ​and​ ​its​ ​traits​ ​that​ ​rise​ ​over​ ​time​ ​on​ ​a​ ​phylogenetic tree.

● Describe​ ​what​ ​the​ ​pic​ ​indicates:​ ​basal​ ​mammal​ ​in​ ​the​ ​center​ ​and​ ​feeding ○ All started out with one form of feeding and then feeding styles evolved based on adaptations in the environment.

● Which​ ​ ​germ​ ​layers​ ​dorsal​ ​nerve​ ​cord​ ​(ectoderm)​ ​and​ ​notochord​ ​(mesoderm) Important​ ​Slides

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