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# BYU - PHY S 100 - Chapter 16, Week 9 Notes - Class Notes

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Chapter 16, Week 9 Notes - Class Notes

##### Description: The Quantum Model of the Atom
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Chapter 16: The Quantum Model of the Atom

Questions unanswered by the Bohr model: Why are there special Bohr orbits? Why don't electrons

Orbitals  •  Probability wave can form a standing wave  •  Electrons form standing waves around the nucleus of an atom in three-
dimensional space
Antinode: high probability of finding an electron at that location  Node: zero probability you'd find an electron there  •  Since standing waves/probability waves don't move, that means
electrons aren't accelerating in an orbit like in the Bohr model. No
Space where electrons reside is not an orbit, like the planets, but is termed
an orbital

Orbital Shapes
•  Shape of the orbit depends on the number of standing waves in the pattern and how what those
3D waves look like
•  Lowest frequency: looks like a Frisbee or a trampoline (rotate 1 standing wave horizontally)  •  3D standing waves create shapes called spherical harmonics  •  Why are electrons only at certain distances from the nucleus? The fixed wavelengths of electrons
create standing waves that are at the right distance from the nucleus.
•  Orbital shapes:  "s" orbital has a spherical shape  "p" orbital is dumbbell shaped, three different "p" orbital shapes,   "d" orbital: two types, one with four orientations (1 + 4 = 5 kinds of "d" orbitals)  "f" orbital: several kinds   *Figures on page 197 are AWESOME visual representations. *

Shells  •  While orbitals of the same type have the same basic shape, each differs in size, energy and radical
shape
Radical shape: cross section if you chopped the orbital in half  •  Shell: group of orbitals with similar energies and sizes (the 1st shell has only an "s" orbital; the 2nd
has "s" and "p" orbitals. Etc.)
"1s" of the "s" orbital is part of the first shell; "2s" the second shell with more energy and
larger
The higher the number on the orbital, the more likely the electron is farther from the
nucleus
The higher the number on the orbital, the greater the energy it possesses

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##### Description: The Quantum Model of the Atom
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• Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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