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ASU - COMS 100 - Study Guide - Final

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Schools > Arizona State University > Communications > COMM 100 > ASU - COMS 100 - Study Guide - Final

ASU - COMS 100 - Study Guide - Final

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background image Chapter ​ ​11:​ ​Communicating​ ​in​ ​Organization  DEFINE ​ ​ORGANIZATIONAL​ ​COMMUNICATION  ● Organizations ​ ​from​ ​a​ ​communication​ ​perspective  ○ Organization ​:​ ​set​ ​of​ ​interactions​ ​that​ ​members​ ​of​ ​purposeful​ ​groups​ ​use​ ​to  accomplish ​ ​their​ ​individual​ ​and​ ​common​ ​goals  ● Communication ​ ​function​ ​and​ ​structure  ○ Function ​:​ ​goals​ ​and​ ​effects​ ​of​ ​communication  ■ Production ​:​ ​a​ ​function​ ​of​ ​organizational​ ​communication​ ​in​ ​which​ ​activity​ ​is  coordinated ​ ​toward​ ​accomplishing​ ​tasks  ■ Maintenance ​:​ ​a​ ​function​ ​of​ ​organizational​ ​communication​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the  stability ​ ​of​ ​existing​ ​systems​ ​is​ ​preserved  ■ Innovation ​:​ ​a​ ​function​ ​of​ ​organizational​ ​communication​ ​by​ ​means​ ​of​ ​which  systems ​ ​are​ ​changed  ○ Structure ​:​ ​recurring​ ​patterns​ ​of​ ​interaction​ ​among​ ​organizational​ ​members  ■ Downward ​ ​communication​:​ ​in​ ​a​ ​traditional​ ​conduit​ ​model​ ​of  communication, ​ ​communication​ ​with​ ​subordinates  ■ Upward ​ ​communication​:​ ​in​ ​a​ ​traditional​ ​conduit​ ​model​ ​of​ ​communication,  communication ​ ​with​ ​superiors  ■ Horizontal ​ ​communication​:​ ​in​ ​a​ ​traditional​ ​conduit​ ​model​ ​of  communication, ​ ​communication​ ​with​ ​peers  ■ Formal ​ ​structure​:​ ​officially​ ​designated​ ​channels​ ​of​ ​communication,  reflecting ​ ​explicit​ ​or​ ​desired​ ​patterns​ ​of​ ​interaction  ■ Informal ​ ​structure​:​ ​unspoken​ ​but​ ​understood​ ​channels​ ​of​ ​communication,  reflecting ​ ​patterns​ ​that​ ​develop​ ​spontaneously   ● Organizational ​ ​culture​:​ ​a​ ​pattern​ ​of​ ​shared​ ​beliefs,​ ​values,​ ​and​ ​behaviors  ○ To ​ ​understand​ ​an​ ​organization’s​ ​core​ ​values/culture:​ ​examine​ ​organization’s  artifacts, ​ ​stated​ ​beliefs​ ​(espoused​ ​by​ ​organizational​ ​leaders),​ ​and​ ​underlying  assumptions ​ ​(values/behaviors​ ​an​ ​organization​ ​rewards​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​what​ ​it  claims ​ ​to​ ​value)  ORGANIZATIONAL ​ ​COMMUNICATION​ ​AND​ ​THE​ ​INDIVIDUAL  ● Assimilation ​:​ ​the​ ​communicative,​ ​behavioral,​ ​and​ ​cognitive​ ​processes​ ​that​ ​influence  individuals ​ ​to​ ​join,​ ​identity​ ​with,​ ​become​ ​integrated​ ​into,​ ​and​ ​(occasionally)​ ​exit​ ​an  organization  ○ Organizational ​ ​identification​:​ ​the​ ​stage​ ​of​ ​assimilation​ ​that​ ​occurs​ ​when​ ​an  employer’s ​ ​values​ ​overlap​ ​with​ ​the​ ​organization’s​ ​values  ○ Communication ​ ​process​ ​most​ ​central​ ​to​ ​assimilation:​ ​information​ ​seeking  ■ Active ​ ​(questioning​ ​and​ ​conversations),​ ​passive​ ​(observation​ ​and  surveillance), ​ ​and​ ​interactive​ ​strategies​ ​(“testing​ ​limits”)  ● Supervisor-Subordinate ​ ​Communication  ○ Semantic-information ​ ​distance​:​ ​describes​ ​the​ ​gap​ ​in​ ​information​ ​and  understanding ​ ​between​ ​supervisors​ ​and​ ​subordinates​ ​on​ ​specific​ ​issues 
background image ■ Upward ​ ​distortion​:​ ​occurs​ ​when​ ​subordinates​ ​are​ ​hesitant​ ​to  communicate ​ ​negative​ ​news​ ​and​ ​present​ ​information​ ​to​ ​superiors​ ​in​ ​a  more ​ ​positive​ ​light​ ​than​ ​is​ ​warranted  ○ Four ​ ​communication​ ​strategies​ ​that​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​supervisors’​ ​success:  ■ Openness ​:​ ​a​ ​state​ ​in​ ​which​ ​communication​ ​are​ ​willing​ ​to​ ​share​ ​their​ ​ideas  as ​ ​well​ ​as​ ​listen​ ​to​ ​to​ ​others​ ​in​ ​a​ ​way​ ​that​ ​avoids​ ​conveying​ ​negative​ ​or  disconfirming ​ ​feedback  ■ Supportive ​:​ ​refers​ ​to​ ​supervisors​ ​who​ ​provide​ ​their​ ​subordinates​ ​with  access ​ ​to​ ​information​ ​and​ ​resources  ■ Motivation ​:​ ​feeling​ ​personally​ ​invested​ ​in​ ​accomplishing​ ​a​ ​specific  activity/goal ​ ​(extrinsic​ ​and​ ​intrinsic)   ■ Empowerment ​:​ ​employees’​ ​feelings​ ​of​ ​self-efficacy  ○ Three ​ ​upward​ ​communication​ ​tactics:  ■ Ingratiation ​:​ ​behavior​ ​and​ ​communication​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​increase​ ​liking  ■ Assertiveness ​:​ ​expressing​ ​one’s​ ​opinions​ ​forcefully​ ​without​ ​offending  others  ■ Rationality ​:​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​communicate​ ​through​ ​reasoning,​ ​bargaining,  coalition ​ ​building,​ ​and​ ​assertiveness  ● Communicating ​ ​with​ ​coworkers  ○ Horizontal: ​ ​communication​ ​that​ ​occurs​ ​among​ ​coworkers/peers  ● Organizational ​ ​dilemmas  ○ Emotion ​ ​labor  ■ When ​ ​the​ ​organization​ ​expects​ ​or​ ​requires​ ​workers​ ​to​ ​display​ ​particular  feelings  ■ Emotional ​ ​display​ ​rules:​ ​explicit/implicit​ ​rules​ ​that​ ​organizations​ ​have​ ​for  what ​ ​emotions​ ​can​ ​be​ ​appropriately​ ​displayed​ ​and​ ​how​ ​those​ ​emotions  should ​ ​be​ ​communicated  ■ Alter ​ ​their​ ​emotional​ ​behavior​ ​in​ ​three​ ​ways:  ● Heighten/increase ​ ​their​ ​expressions​ ​of​ ​joy  ● Appear ​ ​mean/indifferent  ● Convey ​ ​a​ ​vaguely​ ​pleasant​ ​professional​ ​demeanor  ○ Stress ​ ​and​ ​burnout  ■ Stress: ​ ​a​ ​common​ ​response​ ​to​ ​important​ ​demands,​ ​constraints,​ ​or  opportunities ​ ​to​ ​which​ ​one​ ​feels​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​respond  ■ Burnout ​:​ ​a​ ​chronic​ ​condition​ ​that​ ​results​ ​from​ ​the​ ​accumulation​ ​of​ ​daily  stress, ​ ​which​ ​manifests​ ​itself​ ​in​ ​a​ ​very​ ​specific​ ​set​ ​of​ ​characteristics,  including ​ ​exhaustion,​ ​cynicism,​ ​and​ ​ineffectiveness  ○ Work-life ​ ​conflict  THE ​ ​INDIVIDUAL,​ ​ORGANIZATIONAL​ ​COMMUNICATION,​ ​AND​ ​SOCIETY  ● Societal ​ ​influences​ ​on​ ​organizations​ ​(social​ ​change​ ​and​ ​globalization)  ○ General ​ ​systems​ ​theory​:​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​organizations​ ​are​ ​a​ ​system​ ​composed​ ​of  many ​ ​subsystems​ ​and​ ​embedded​ ​in​ ​larger​ ​systems,​ ​and​ ​that​ ​organizations  should ​ ​develop​ ​communication​ ​strategies​ ​that​ ​serve​ ​both 
background image ○ Globalization ​:​ ​the​ ​increasing​ ​connectedness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​in​ ​economic,​ ​political,  and ​ ​cultural​ ​realms  ● Influence ​ ​of​ ​organization​ ​on​ ​individuals​ ​and​ ​society  ○ Four ​ ​trends:  ■ The ​ ​new​ ​social​ ​contract​:​ ​assumes​ ​that​ ​loyalty​ ​is​ ​not​ ​expected​ ​by  workers/organizations ​ ​and​ ​that​ ​job​ ​security​ ​is​ ​unlikely  ■ Contingent ​ ​workforces​:​ ​individuals​ ​who​ ​work​ ​in​ ​temporary​ ​positions,  part-time ​ ​or​ ​as​ ​subcontractors  ■ Urgent ​ ​organizations​:​ ​companies​ ​that​ ​try​ ​to​ ​shorten​ ​the​ ​time​ ​it​ ​takes​ ​to  develop ​ ​new​ ​products​ ​and​ ​respond​ ​to​ ​customer​ ​demands  ■ Blurred ​ ​boundaries​ ​between​ ​work​ ​and​ ​life  ● Organizations, ​ ​communication,​ ​and​ ​power  ○ Three ​ ​communication​ ​problems​ ​that​ ​result​ ​from​ ​large​ ​power​ ​differences:  ■ Bullying ​:​ ​repeated​ ​hostile​ ​behaviors​ ​that​ ​are​ ​or​ ​are​ ​perceived​ ​to​ ​be  intended ​ ​to​ ​harm​ ​parties​ ​who​ ​are​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​defend​ ​themselves  ■ Sexual ​ ​harassment​ ​(two​ ​types​ ​recognized​ ​by​ ​federal​ ​law)  ● Quid ​ ​pro​ ​quo​:​ ​requests​ ​for​ ​sexual​ ​favors​ ​as​ ​a​ ​condition​ ​of​ ​getting  or ​ ​keeping​ ​a​ ​job​ ​or​ ​benefit  ● Hostile ​ ​work​ ​environment​:​ ​an​ ​intimidating,​ ​hostile,​ ​or​ ​offensive  workplace ​ ​atmosphere​ ​created​ ​by​ ​unwelcome​ ​and​ ​inappropriate  sexially ​ ​based​ ​behavior  ■ Employee ​ ​privacy​ ​and​ ​monitoring  ETHICS ​ ​AND​ ​ORGANIZATIONAL​ ​COMMUNICATION  ● Individual ​ ​vs​ ​communal​ ​perspective  IMPROVING ​ ​YOUR​ ​ORGANIZATIONAL​ ​COMMUNICATION​ ​SKILLS  ● Strategy ​ ​control​:​ ​assessing​ ​the​ ​available​ ​information​ ​and​ ​options​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​increase  one’s ​ ​understanding​ ​of​ ​the​ ​conflict​ ​and​ ​the​ ​other​ ​party​ ​before​ ​engaging​ ​in​ ​conflict  communication   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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School: Arizona State University
Department: Communications
Course: Into to Human Communication
Professor: Elissa Arterburn
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: HumanCommunication
Name: Human Communication: Chapters 11-14
Description: These notes cover chapters 11-14 for exam 3.
Uploaded: 10/30/2017
11 Pages 99 Views 79 Unlocks
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