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NYU - PSY 34 - Exam 2 DevPsych Study Guide - Study Guide

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NYU - PSY 34 - Exam 2 DevPsych Study Guide - Study Guide

School: New York University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Zhana Vrangalova
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: developmental psychology, development, and child development
Name: Exam 2 DevPsych Study Guide
Description: Exam 2 Study Guide Infant Cognition Language Acquisition Symbols Becoming Euclid Conceptual Development Language Conceptual Development Social Development and Theory of Mind
Uploaded: 10/30/2017
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background image Eun-Sung Chang Dev Psych Midterm 2 Review - Exam Date: 10/31/17 ***Please do not rely solely on this review to study for the exam.*** Infant Cognition •  Object permanence – understanding that things exist independent of our experience of them •  Object concept – objects have stable properties and exist independently of our psychological and physical interactions with them o  Continue to exist when out of sight
o  Retain their physical properties (solidity/texture)
o  Retain their spatial properties (location)
•  Means-end reasoning – engaging in a mean that is different with what the ends entail o  Was thought to be too difficult for infants •  Baillargeon tested babies with screen that leaned back with an object behind the screen o  Expected à screen moved back and stopped where the object was
o  Unexpected à screen moved back past the object and laid all the way down
§   Babies as young as 3 ½ months (way younger than Piaget’s theory) looked longer at the impossible event à suggests they thought there was an object behind the screen •  Spelke tested to see if infants have a concept of cohesion with an image of a green line behind a blue block o  Blue block moved to show 1 cohesive green line
o  Blue block moved to show 2 disconnected pieces of the green line
§   4-month-olds looked longer at disconnected pieces §   1-month-olds looked at both equally, but looked longer at the 2 broken bits when there was motion involved •  Johnson tested babies on same task but used eye-tracking to determine which infants were “perceivers” and “non-perceivers” o  Motion showed green line moving cohesively behind a blue block §   Most kids are perceiving §   Perceivers look up and down at green rod peeking outside of block §   Non-perceivers look all over the place and not at relevant parts of video •  A not B error – baby look at an object behind B but arm shoots out to grab A o  Action planning – process planning motor movement to go to B not A
o  Execution – actual control to go to a new location
•  Infants do not have the capacity to plan à there is a disconnect between the ventral and dorsal processing streams o  Ventral stream – “what” stream
o  Dorsal stream – “where” stream, spatial processing/object location
•  Relationships between objects o  Support – one object on top of another §   7-month-olds know if 50% of object is on base, base will support object
background image o  Occlusion – one object hides another §   3-month-olds look longer when tall object hides behind short object o  Containment – one object inside another §   Babies do not understand containment even though they understand occlusion à suggests infants are not learning that height is generalizable to other events •  Face preference à babies prefer faces over other things o  Newborns will turn their heads to look at faces over blobs •  Principles of motion à babies are not surprised to see flying objects, but are surprised to see flying people •  Goal-directed action à 5-month-olds attribute different goals to people and objects •  Space – self-locomotion plays a role of kids’ understanding of their own space/space of others o  Kids succeed when they locomote themselves
o  Fail when someone else moves them
•  Time o  Kids are good at anticipating order of events
o  Kids are bad at future thinking/duration of events
•  Causality – behavior of contingencies of the world o  Innate core theory of causality – babies have spatiotemporal perception of contact Language Acquisition •  Language is o  For communication
o  For organization of thoughts/concepts
o  For maintaining/creating social structure
o  Unique to humans
•  Original learning theory – language is acquired by operant conditioning and reinforcement à children simply listen and respond to input •  Original nativist theory – children have a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) à children can induce the rules of language from the speech of others •  New nativist theory – children apply grammatical rules to words they have never heard before à make nonsense words plural by adding –s or make words past tense by adding –ed even if it’s incorrect (bring à “bringed” (supposed to be “brought”)) •  Components of Language Acquisition o  Speech perception – sound units §   Babies prefer to hear speech over nonspeech o  Segmentation – of lexical forms §   Boundaries between words have low transitional probabilities §   Syllables have high transitional probabilities o  Morphology – meaning units
o  Syntax – grammar
background image §   Children create novel sentences, regularize to new instances using rules, over-regularize o  Semantics – meaning •  There is a sensitive period to develop language
•  Components of Language Production
o  Cooing – “ah” and “ooh” vowels
o  Babbling – consonants, clicks, raspberries
o  Deaf children babble vocally later and babble manually at the same time as
hearing children o  Prosody – strings of babbles with same intonation as adult speech §   Adults can listen to babies raised with different languages and can pick out their native language in baby babbling 70% of the time §   Infants are already native speakers in the prosody of their language Symbols •  Symbols – something that someone intends to represent something other than itself o  Symbols get their meaning from society and are agreed upon meanings that are conventional •  “Representational” – when something stands for/depicts something other than itself o  “RE-present” – our senses gather perceptive information à our minds re- present the information gathered from the world in different ways to do stuff with it •  “Intentional” – deliberate behavior to achieve a goal o  Intentionality is doing something with purpose to bring about a change in the world •  Importance of symbols o  Information transfer
o  Cultural transmission
•  Symbols are creative, flexible, and unique to humans
•  Quine’s problem of induction – there is no symbol or possible meaning of a word
because it needs context o  Ex.) You see a bunny run across the lawn, and someone says “gavagai!” à what does “gavagai” mean? §   Could mean multiple things depending on context •  Learning nouns o  Constraints – cognitive tools that narrow hypothesis space, mental shortcuts §   Whole object assumption •  Ex.) If you are presented with a beady-yellow-eyed creature, and someone said “eye-eye,” what would you think “eye-eye” meant? o  Most would say it means the whole animal •  Ex.) “This is my blicket” referring to a furry T-shaped object à asked children to point to the “blicket” referring to similar texture or shape

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School: New York University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Zhana Vrangalova
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: developmental psychology, development, and child development
Name: Exam 2 DevPsych Study Guide
Description: Exam 2 Study Guide Infant Cognition Language Acquisition Symbols Becoming Euclid Conceptual Development Language Conceptual Development Social Development and Theory of Mind
Uploaded: 10/30/2017
11 Pages 80 Views 64 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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