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COLORADO / Engineering / PSYC 2012300 / Which nerves connect the central nervous system to the rest of the bod

Which nerves connect the central nervous system to the rest of the bod

Which nerves connect the central nervous system to the rest of the bod

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Engineering
Course: Biological Psychology
Professor: Helen yankovich
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: biopsych
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2
Description: Chapters 4-6
Uploaded: 10/30/2017
16 Pages 241 Views 3 Unlocks
Reviews


Biological Psychology Test 2 Study Guide  


Which nerves connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body?



This is essentially a list of questions that TAs have derived from the lectures based on  what they think are some of the main concepts. This is not a comprehensive list of what  may be on the test. Use this as a study tool to help you recognize areas you may not  understand. It is NOT a substitute for you own studying.  

Much of the material on this test is going to cover information that requires a lot of  MEMORIZATION. Thus  

Neuroanatomy  

1. Know the “directions” of anatomy (Table 4.1, page 85). Be able to use them in  describing a structure’s location.

1. Superior: Towards above

2. Inferior: Towards below

3. Anterior/Rostral: Towards the front

4. Posterior/Caudal: Towards the back


What does doral root ganglion mean?



5. Dorsal: Toward the back

6. Ventral: Toward the belly

7. Medial: Towards the middle

8. Lateral: Towards the side

1. Ipsilateral: 2 locations on the same side of the body  

2. Contralateral: 2 locations on opposite sides of the body  We also discuss several other topics like Why was the 1970s considered the worst decade of inflation?

9. Proximal: Near from the centre or point of origin  

10. Distal: Far from the centre or point of origin  


What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?



2. Know the terms referring to parts of the NS (Table 4.2 page 86).  

1. Central Nervous System (CNS):  

a) Brain & Spinal cord:  

a) ~3 pounds, 1kg 300g ~ 1kg 400g  

2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of  the body  

- Information from sensory receptors to CNS and instructions from CNS to the  body If you want to learn more check out What services does mea serve?

1. Autonomic nervous system  

1. Sympathetic  

1. “fight or flight” - prepares body for action: Increased heart rate, widening  of the pupils  

1. Chains of ganglia to left/right of SC central regions (thoracic and  lumbar)  

2. Most post-ganglionic synapses use NE  

2. Parasympathetic  

1. Prepares body for rest (conserves energy)  We also discuss several other topics like What is the study of interaction between living organisms and their environment?

1. Long pre-ganglionic axons from SC to ganglia (close to organ)  

1. Post-ganglionic synapses use Acetylcholine  

2. Afferent: brings information into the structure  

3. Efferent: carries information away from the structure

3. Grooves in the brain are called sulci (or fissures, which is deep sulci). The bumps are  called gyri.  

1. Sulcus  

1. Central Sulcus: Separates frontal from parietal  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the contribution of arthur keith in anthropology?

2. Fissure  

1. Longitudinal fissure: Divides hemispheres  

2. Sylvian (lateral) fissure: Separates frontal/parietal from temporal  3. Calcarine fissure: Separates occipital from parietal  

3. Gyrus  

1. Pre-central gyrus: primary motor  

2. Post-central gyrus: primary somatosensory  

4. What is the dorsal root ganglion?  

1. Also called a posterior root ganglion  

2. A cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve  3. Dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurones called afferent  neurones  Don't forget about the age old question of Which holistic discipline studies all aspects of human behavior across time and space?

5. What does the gray matter in the CNS contain? White matter? How are these two  matters changed from the Cortex to the spinal cord?  

1. Grey matter in the CNS contain neuronal cell bodies, neuropil, which is  dendrites and myelinated & unmyelinated axons.  

2. White matter contains nerve fibres, which are axons those are the extensions of  nerve cells, the neurones.  

1. Myelin covers this white matter, therefore giving white matter its colour.  3. Grey matter and white matter are differentiated in a way that the grey matter  contains numerous cell bodies, but relatively few militated axons. However for  white matter, it contains relatively few cell bodies and is composed of long range myelinated axon tracts.

6. Compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. What kind of actions  are they responsible for? Do they synapse near or far from the target organ?  1. PNS > Somatic & Autonomic Nervous system > sympa/parasympathetic  1. Sympathetic Nervous System  

1. All acting in sympathy  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between receipts and outlays when it comes to fiscal policy?

2. Parasympathetic Nervous system  

1. Fight or flight

7. What Cortex structures are involved in the limbic system?  

1. Latin: limbus = border  

2. Loosely defined, widespread network of structures  

3. Located on both sides of the thalamus  

4. Cerebral cortex, but some of them are subcortical structures  

5. Involved in motivation, emotion, and learning & memory  

- Hypothalamus  

- Olfactory but: receives olfactory inputs from nasal cavities - Hippocampus: important for formation of new memories  

- Cingulate gyrus: cortical portion of limbic system involved in direction of attention  - Amygdala: involved in emotional regulation  

8. What structures are involved in the basal ganglia? What kind of deficits would you see  if you damaged this system? What diseases specifically cause damage in this system?  1. Group of forebrain nuclei (not ganglia despite the name)deep within the cerebral hemispheres  

- Neostriatum (cortical input):  

- Caudate nucleus  

- Putamen  

- Globus Pallidus (outpus)  

- Via thalamus to cortex - Substantia nigra (in the midbrain)  

- Sub-thalamic nucleus  

- Nuclei reciprocally connected among themselves and cerebral cortex - Important in motor control: monitor progress of motor activity  - Cognition: connections of frontal cortex  

9. What are the meninges?  

1. Protective membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord  

2. Dura mater  

1. tough outermost sheet  

3. Arachnoid layer  

1. fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) filled space  

4. Pia mater  

1. innermost, thin membrane directly on top of cortex/CNS  

5. Meningitis  

1. An acute inflammation of the meninges (viral/bacterial infection)

10. What is purpose of the cerebrospinal fluid? Where is it formed?  

1. Surrounds, cushions, and support for CNS  

1. Adds buoyancy to brain —> weighs less  

2. Clear fluid containing proteins, glucose & ions (K, Na, Cl)

- Nourishes and removes waste  

- Flows from lateral ventricles to 3rd and 4th- central canal of SC and subarachnoid  space  

- In subarachnoid space fully circulated CSF is absorbed into blood stream  - Build-up of CSF causes Hydrocephalus 

11. What are the two hemispheres of the brain connected by?  

1. Corpus callosum

12. Describe how the cortex is organized.

13. What deficits would you expect in a patient with damage to the occipital lobe.  1. Visual perception and functioning, a patient might have to thoroughly overhaul  many of his or her most basic coping and human relations strategies

14. Where is the primary somatosensory cortex and how is it organized? What kind of  information does it receive?  

1. Located in the Parietal Lobe  

2. It receives all sensory input from the body: skin, pain, visual, or auditory stimuli  3. Somatosensory centre:  

1. Postcentral gyrus — primary somatosensory cortex (BA 1, 2, 3)  1. Inputs from thalamus (VPN)  

2. Touch, pain, temperature sensations  

1. Helps us understand what we see and feel  

3. Proprioception: monitors information about eye, head, and body positions  and sends it to motor cortex  

1. i.e., process information about the environment, such as distance and  position of objects  

15. What functions and what kind of sensory information is the temporal lobe responsible  for?  

1. Auditory cortex (A1)  

1. Involved in hearing and the ability to recognise words  

1. Left temporal lobe: comprehension centre  

2. Perception of movement and face recognition  

3. Role in emotional & motivational behaviour:  

1. Kluver-Bucy syndrome: Temporal lobe damage lack of fear and anxiety

4. Role in memory:  

1. Damage to the left — problems remembering what people said  

2. Damage to the right — difficulty recalling music or pictures

16. Explain some of the tasks the prefrontal cortex is responsible for.  1. Planning complex cognitive behaviours, personality expression, decision making  and moderating correct social behaviour, working memory

Matching:

Place the structures in List I with the brain division they belong in.

Match the Functions/Descriptions in List II with the structures in List I (each can have more  than one answer and the answers can be used more than once. Some structures are  followed by No II; this means they do not have a match in List II.

Structure

Function/Description

Hindbrain

Medulla

- controls arousal and  

attention

- Vital reflexes  

- Breathing  

- Heart rate

Pons (Latin: bridge)

“bridge”

Cerebellum

- Balance and coordination - Movement

Reticular formation (RF)

Structure

Function/Description

Midbrain

Tectum (It: roof)

Sensory processing

- Superior colliculus: vision - Inferior colliculus: hearing

Tegmentum

Nuclei for cranial nerves 3,4  (control of eye movements)

Substantia nigra

Rise to dopamine (DA) pathways - Important for motor control

Superior and inferior colliculi

Forebrain

Basal Ganglia

Limbic system

Emotion, Sexual behaviours

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

controls eating

Pituitary Gland

- Releases hormones

Hippocampus

- Important for formation of new  memories

- “Seahorse”

Structure Function/Description  

LIST I  

 A. Hippocampus  

 B. Medulla  

 C. Hypothalamus  

 D. Reticular formation   E. Tegmentum (no II)   F. Pons  

 G. Pituitary Gland   H. Limbic system  

 I. Raphe system (no II)   J. Cerebellum  

 K. Basal Ganglia  

 L. Thalamus  

 M. Tectum (no II)  

 N. Superior and inferior  colliculi (no II)  

 O. Substantia nigra

LIST II  

a. First stop for sensory information

b. Regulates eating 

c. Balance and coordination 

d. Contains the dopamine pathway

e. Composed of putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate  f. Nucleus Regulates temperature  

g. Connected to the hypothalamus  

h. Directly above spinal cord  

i. Emotion  

j. Plans movement  

k. Releases hormones  

l. Motivation  

m. Regulates hormone release  

n. Where many axons cross from one side to the other  o. Controls movement  

p. Sensory timing  

q. Sexual behaviour  

r. Breathing  

s. Transmits sensory information to the cortex  t. Heart rate  

u. Stores memories  

v. Coughing  

w. Magnifies and regulates attention to a certain stimuli  x. Vital reflexes  

y. “bridge”  

z. “sea horse”  

aa. controls motor areas of the spinal cord  

bb. controls arousal and attention

Research Methods  

1. How are an MRI and an MEG different/similar?

1. Difference:  

1. MEG measures the minuscule magnetic fields generated by brain’s electrical  activity, whereas MRI measure difference in magnetic properties  

2. Similarities:  

1. Both measures magnetic fields  

2. How is an MRI and an fMRI different? Which one can look at the function of the brain  (versus only anatomy)?  

1. fMRI is the mixture of MRI and PET, therefore, it is upgraded version of MRI.  2. Only fMRI can do it.  

3. What is a negative aspect of PET scans.  

- Strengths

- Enables measurements of task-related changes in brain activity

- Normal human subjects

- Good spatial resolution (5-10mm)

- Limitations

- Invasive

- Measures regional cerebral blood flow

- Indirect measure of brain activity

- Poor temporal resolution

- Averages across 1 min of activity

4. What are the ways researchers can manipulate an animal brain to study the function of  an area? How is this done in humans?  

5. Name each technique and match it with how it works.

PET (Positron—emission tomography)

- Radioactive tracers in the brain via blood - Measures blood flow to cortical areas 

- > blood = > activation 

- indirect measure of neural activity 

- Subtraction technique 

- Baseline activity from stimulation activity - Example: saying a word 

- Injects radioactive substance and measures brain  activity from gamma rays emitted by that  substance breaking down.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

- Measure difference in magnetic properties - Structural = anatomy only - Functional = changes in blood oxygen level  (BOLD): ratios of oxygenated to oxygenated  hemoglobin in the brain

- hemoglobin (carries O2 in blood) has magnetic  properties

- when magnetic field presented to the brain  hemoglobin molecules line up like tiny magnets - O2 used in areas of high activity enabling  hemoglobin to respond stronger to magnetic  field

- Subtraction technique 

- Measures brain activity by looking at changes in  the oxygen level in your blood.

EEG (Electroencephalogram)

- Electrodes attached to scalp measure average  electrical activity for the particular group of cells - Output is amplified and recorded - Spontaneous activity: clinical (e.g., epilepsy) - Evoked potentials: activity in response to a  stimuli

- Can tell us when and where activity is  occurring

- Good temporal resolution 

- Direct measure of neural activity 

- Uses electrodes on the scalp to record electrical  activity of the brain

CAT (Computerised Axial Tomography)

- Examines brain structure through computer  analysis of X-ray absorption at several positions  around the head

- Absorption proportional to the density of the  tissue through which X-rays passed

- Anatomical map of the brain based on tissue  density

- Medium resolution images: structural  

abnormalities: strokes, tumours r cortical atrophy

- Inject a dye and takes X-rays from all angles to  construct an image. Measures energy released in  response to a magnetic field.

MEG (Magnetoencephalogram)

- Measures the minuscule magnetic fields  generated by brain’s electrical activity

- Real-time maps of brain activity during  ongoing cognitive processing

- Excellent temporal resolution — detects very  rapid changes in cortical activity (ms) - Direct measure of neural activity 

- Measures magnetic fields generated by brain  activity

A a  

Chapter 5  

1. What does it mean to say the brain is “plastic”?  

1. Can change

2. At what age does the CNS begin to form in fetal development: Describe how the brain  forms and each stage of this process.

1. The production of nerve cells is called Neurogenesis  

2. Cells that give rise to neurones and glia: precursors  

1. Along the inner surface of neural tube  

1. Divide & form closely packed layer of cells called ventricular zone  2. Each part of brain has a species — specific “birth-date”  

1. Orderly chronological programme for brain development  

3. What molecules help guide neurone migration?

1. Immunoglobulins and chemokines guide neurone migration

4. Put the following developmental stages in the order that they happen in the developing  brain: Neuronal cell death, differentiation, cell migration, proliferation, synaptogenesis.  1. Proliferation: neurogenesis  

2. Cell Migration  

3. Differentiation  

4. Myelination  

5. Synaptogenesis  

6. Neuronal cell death

5. What two areas have neurones forming throughout your lifetime?  

6. According to Sperry’s experiment, if axons are cut, which targets do they reconnect  with? How is it thought that an axon finds its target?  

7. What determines if a neurone survives?  

1. Neurotrophic factors: A chemical that acts as if it “feeds” certain neurones to help  them survive  

1. NGF (nerve growth factor): Affects growth of neurones in sympathetic NS  2. BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor): most abundant neurotrophin in adult  cerebral cortex  

3. Neurones that gather insufficient tropic factor undergo apoptosis

8. What is apoptosis/necrosis?  

1. Apoptosis:  

1. Programmed cell death  

2. Neurones that do not form functional synapses “commit suicide”  

2. Necrosis:  

1. Cell death due to injury

9. What aspect of your neurones change in response to your experiences?

10. If the brain is unable to significantly grow new neurones, what are some examples of it  adapting?

11. Describe two causes of stroke.  

1. Edema: The accumulation of fluid  

1. Increases pressure on the brain and chance of new stroke  

2. Impaired NA/K pump  

1. Increases concentration of Na inside the cell

12. What is most of the damage from a stroke the result of? What is the key to initially  preventing damage from a stroke? What is the penumbra? Why is cooling the brain so  effective in preventing damage?  

1. Short-term help:  

1. Drugs that break down blood cloths for ischemia  

2. Drugs that block glutamate synapses  

3. Trying to save cells in penumbra - region surrounding immediate damage  1. Cooling the brain (33-36C) for few days can help  

2. Long-term help:  

1. Anatomical changes  

2. Learned adjustments in behaviour

13. What is the reasoning for giving stroke patients stimulants?  

1. Temporary loss of blood to a brain area  

2. Severity: undetected to fatal  

1. Ischemia: result of obstruction in artery  

1. Most common type of stroke  

2. Neurones deprived of blood  

2. Haemorrhage: result of raptured artery  

1. Less common  

2. Neurones flooded with blood and excess of chemicals

14. What happens to an axon when it is cut?  

1. The regrowth of Axons  

1. Damaged axons can sometimes grow back (crushed vs. cut)  

1. Follow myelin to target  

2. Sprouting  

1. Brain damage accelerates sprouting (growth) of new branches of axons  dendrites  

1. Postsynaptic cell releases neurotrophins to induce sprouting in other axons:  Collateral sprouts (attach to vacant synapses)  

3. Reorganising sensory representations:  

1. Experience modifies connections within cerebral cortex to increase  representation of important information  

1. Practicing skill: increases cortical representation for that skill (e.g., playing an  instrument)

2. After amputation: Somatosensory cortex undergoes reorganisation:  1. Axons from enightboring structures overtake vacant synapses  

1. Phantom limb: somatosensory cortex reorganises and becomes  responsive to alternative inputs

15. What happens to a postsynaptic cell if it loses synaptic input?  

16. Why do researchers think phantom limbs happen?  

17. How is recovery after damage based on learning?  

Chapter 6 Vision:  

1. Describe the parts of the eye and its connections to the brain.  

1. Cornea: helps the eye focus  

2. Iris (colour of your eyes): controls how much light enters the pupil  1. Acs like shutter of the camera: contracts and expands depending on amount of  light  

2. Pupil: Opening in the centre of the iris  

3. Lens: focuses light on to the retina by changing shape (ciliary muscles)  4. Retina: contains the light receptors or photoreceptors  

1. Fovea: area specialised for acute, detailed vision  

5. Optic nerve: carries impulses from the eye to the brain. Whenever this is  stimulated, the signal that goes to the brain is visual signals.

2. Describe the law of specific nerve energies.  

1. states that activity by a particular nerve always conveys the same type of  information to the brain  

1. example: impulses in one neurone indicate light; impulses in another neurone  indicate sound  

3. Explain how is the object in the visual field projected to retina.  

1. left hits right side and right hits left side. Above hits bottom and bottom hits above.

4. Describe the visual route light takes within the retina.  

1. Light is changed into neural energy in photoreceptors

2. light passes through ganglions cells and blah blah blah and pass everything and  hits rods and cons so that they can transduced to action potentials and gives  signals.

3. Route within the retina:  

1. light —> photoreceptors —> bipolar and horizontal cells —> ganglion cells —>  brain (via optic nerve)  

4. what is the visual processing of rods?  

5. Describe the functional and anatomic differences between rods and cones.  1. Rods: most abundant in the periphery of the eye and respond to faint light (120  million / retina)  

1. does not really have pigments  

2. Cones: most abundant in and around the fovea (6 million / retina) — 90% of input  to the brain  

1. Essential for colour vision & more useful in bright light

2. Thus, good colour vision in fovea but not periphery  

3. very acute just because there is one and one relationship with the cells 4. Photopigments: chemicals in photoreceptors that release energy in response  to light  

1. consist of 11-cis-retinal  

2. light converts it into all-trans-retinal

3. released energy activates second messengers within the cell  

6. Describe why humans have a blind spot.  

1. Blind spot: area of retina  

2. Light does not come inside this part, so we cannot see

7. Describe the trichromatic, opponent-process, and retained theories of colour vision  1. Trichromatic theory:  

1. 3 types of cones sensitive to different ranges of wavelength  

1. Short wavelength (blue lights)  

2. Medium wavelength (green lights)  

3. Long wavelength (red lights)  

2. The ratio of activity across the three types of cones determines the colour.

3. But the limitation is that incomplete theory of colour vision.  

1. example: Negative colour afterimage  

1. replacement of red/green, yellow/blue, black/white  

2. Opponent-process theory:

3. Retained theories of four colour vision:  

8. Describe what happens to the incoming axons at the optic chiasma  1. Optic Chiasma is where the nasal part crosses over and disperse.  1. Nasal parts: cross over  

2. Temporal parts: do not cross over  

1. Because of Nasal and Temporal parts, our right side of the brain controls left,  and left side of the brain control right.  

2. After these, goes to BA 17 (Brodman area number 17)

8. Describe the concept of receptive fields and how they change from the retina to the  various areas of the visual cortex.  

1. Receptive fields: part of visual field that excites/inhibits the cell  

1. Photoreceptors: area of visual field from which light strikes that receptor  2. Other cells: determined by which receptors connected to it and by pattern of  their input  

1. Thus, as we progress up the visual pathway receptive fields become larger..

9. Describe three types of ganglion cells and their functions.  

1. Parvocellular: small with small receptive field, near or in fovea  

1. Highly sensitive to colour and detail of stationary objects  

2. Magnocellular: large with large receptive field, distributed evenly across retina  1. Respond to moving stimuli and brad outlines of shapes  

3. Koniocellular: small with mostly small receptive fields, throughout retina  1. Some are colour sensitive, respond to varied stimuli  

4. Variety of ganglion cells: visual system analyses information in different ways from  the start  

1. Cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) have a receptive field similar to  those of ganglion cells

10. Describe the key functions of the major pathways in the visual cortex. (i.e., dorsal and  ventral streams).  

11. What is the contributions of areas V1, V2, and inferior temporal cortex to shape  perception?  

12. Describe the work of Hubel & Wiesel as it relates to simple and complex cells.  

13. Describe the brain areas that process colour and motion.  

1. Colour:  

2. Motion: Medial temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) cortex  1. Motion Perception  

1. Medial temporal (MT) V5 and medial superior temporal (MST) cortex:  1. Visual movement  

2. Cells respond selectively to movement at particular speed and direction  3. Cells in MST respond best to complex stimuli  

14. Compare and contrast the patterns of spared and impaired abilities shown in patients  with visual agnosia, optic ataxia, prosopagnosia and motion agnosia.  1. Visual agnosia:  

1. Damage to “what” pathway  

2. Mostly tempura lobe injury  

3. Disorder of visual object recognition

1. Inability to interpret visual information  

4. Object recognition deficit is specific to vision  

1. 귀에다가 키를 흔들면 그것이 키라는 것을 알수있다. 하지만 눈으로는 알지 못한다. 5. Not just a general loss of memory  

2. Optic ataxia:  

1. Parietal lobe injury  

1. “where” pathway  

2. Disorder of visuo-spatial guided behaviour  

1. Inability to make visually guided movements  

2. No impairment in vision, depth perception, hand or arm movement  3. Prosopagnosia:  

1. “Face blindness”  

1. Inability to recognise familiar faces  

2. Recognition of other objects is normal  

3. Lesions in the medial occipito-temproal region of the brain  

1. Fusiform gyrus (or face area) win IT cortex — brain region specialised  for the processing of faces  

4. Motions agnosia:  

1. Brain injury causes a selective deficit in motion perception  

1. Can see an object but fail to see that it is moving.

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