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SJSU / Engineering / PSYC 001 / The occipital cortex of the brain has to be stimulated by visual input

The occipital cortex of the brain has to be stimulated by visual input

The occipital cortex of the brain has to be stimulated by visual input

Description

School: San Jose State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Susan snycerski
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: This extensive study guide covers anything that may be on the exam.
Uploaded: 10/30/2017
11 Pages 12 Views 13 Unlocks
Reviews


Review for Midterm #2


The occipital cortex of the brain has to be stimulated by visual input to what?



Chapter​ ​5:​ ​Development 

A. Infancy, Adolescence and Adulthood

I. Brain and Sensory Capabilities and Perceptual Preferences

● Visual acuity increases as cones and cortex develops

○ Infants can only see 20 ft away while an average adult can see 600 ft away ○ The occipital cortex of the brain has to be stimulated by visual input so that it can develop proper synaptic connections needed to process visual information ● Depth perception and binocular disparity

○ Visual cliff to test depth perception

■ Babies have depth perception because they stopped at the visual cliff

● Synaptic pruning and learning: what happens to synapses during development? ○ “Use it or lose it”

○ With learning and experience, certain synaptic connections strengthen, but those that don’t receive stimulation from the environment die off


What stage development infants learn about the world using their senses and using their bodies?



● Effects of maternal nutrition and teratogens on development of fetus and brain ○ Nutrition: key part of a baby’s environment

■ Certain kind of diet can lead to obesity

○ Teratogens: substances from the external environment that impact fetal and infant development

■ Viruses; flu and measles, alcohol, drugs, nicotine

■ Can damage brain and central nervous system, low birth weight, mental retardation, physical abnormalities

● Neural migration

○ The movement of neurons from one part of the fetal brain to their more permanent destination; this occurs during the fetal stage(3-5 months)

II. Physical Development

● Milestone ages

○ Chest up/holding prone: 2-4 months

○ Head up: 2 months

○ Sitting: 5-8 months

○ Crawling: 8-9 months


Who is Erik Erikson?



○ Walking alone: 12-15 months Don't forget about the age old question of chem 110 ucsc

III. Cognitive development: how we acquire knowledge and understand the world over the lifespan

● Piaget’s stages of development

○ Sensorimotor(0-2 years): infants learn about the world using their senses and using their bodies

■ Object permanence until ~9 months meaning an infant won’t look or reach for an object when it isn’t in sight

■ Early on all the infants behavior is unintentional then increasingly

becomes intentional

○ Preoperation(2-6 years): the emergence of symbolic thought

■ Has no way of manipulating/operating on mental ideas

■ Immediate appearance over logic

■ Thinking is egocentric Don't forget about the age old question of hnf 150
We also discuss several other topics like distrouted

■ Appearance is reality

■ Inability to reverse of converse

○ Concrete Operational Stage(6-11 years): can perform mental operations such as reversing on real objects or events

■ Logical reasoning forms but only concrete

■ Can do mentally what previously could only be done physically (counting on fingers)

○ Formal Operational(11 and up): formal logic is possible

■ Abstract reasoning

■ idealism(what is possible, not just what is)- interest in philosophy and politics begin

■ Reflection and metacognition(thinking about thinking

■ Not all people advance to formal operations at the same extent

B. Social-emotional development: What is social development?

● Imprinting-separation anxiety

○ Imprinting: rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver very soon after birth

■ Newborn sees caregiver as protector, seen in birds and mammals as well ○ Separation anxiety: distress babies show when they are separated from their primary caregiver

● Harry Harlow and rhesus monkeys

○ Wire but milk mother and cloth but no milk mother

○ Concludes that we need more than just food to survive, we need physical warmth and contact

○ See this because monkeys prefered the cloth but no milk mother

● Attachment

○ Two fundamental assumptions:

■ A responsible and accessible caregiver creates a secure base for the child ■ Primary bonding relationship becomes a mental model on which future friendships and love relationships are built

○ Strange situation test

■ secure(65% of children): distressed on departure, but warm hugs on Don't forget about the age old question of trdr 1101 class notes

return; child settles

■ anxious-ambivalent(10-15% of children): distressed all the time, held on return but also pushes away

■ avoidant(20-25% of children): not distressed on departure; no reunion, ignores attachment figure

○ Rene Spitz and Orphans(1940s)

■ Lack of touch and interpersonal contact caused severe stunted physical and psychological growth

■ By age 3, ⅓ died and less that 5% could walk, feed themselves of talk in sentences

○ Tiffany Fields and Low Birth Weight Infants

■ Touch for 15 min/day results in faster weight gain and fewer long term deficits for premature infants

C. Personality Development

● Psychosocial Personality Development: Erik Erikson

○ Developed 8 stage model of psychosocial development

○ 3 forms of identity: sexual, ideological, occupation

1. Infancy: Hope, trust vs mistrust

2. Early Childhood: Will, autonomy vs shame and doubt

3. Play Age: Purpose, initiative vs guilt

4. School Age: Competence, industry vs inferiority

5. Adolescence: Fidelity, identity vs identity confusion

6. Young Adulthood: Love, intimacy vs isolation

7. Adulthood: Care, generativity vs stagnation

8. Old Age: Wisdom, integrity vs despair/disgust

C. Adult Development and Old Age

● Physical changes in early, mid, and late adulthood

○ Early Adulthood(mid 20s): better cardiovascular activity correlates with better cognitive strength

○ Middle Adulthood: experience loss of vision and hearing

○ Late Adulthood(60s-): body mass decreases with age, memory problems, ● Alzheimer Disease

○ Confusion, memory loss, mood swings, loss of physical function- usually leads to dementiaDon't forget about the age old question of which of the following refers to a media-scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks to achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at those times?

Chapter​ ​6:​ ​States​ ​of​ ​Consciousness 

1. The Puzzle of Consciousness

● Measuring States of Consciousness

○ Consciousness: awareness of thoughts, feelings, behaviors; being aware that we are aware(metaknowledge)

● Continuum of Consciousness

○ Two dimensions:

■ Wakefulness: the degree of alertness reflecting whether a person is awake or asleep

■ Awareness: the monitoring of information from the environment and from one’s own thoughts

○ Full consciousness and mindfulness

■ Mindfulness: a heightened awareness of the present moment, whether of events in one’s environment or in one’s own mind

○ Attention, sustained attention and hazards of driving while on a cell phone ■ Selective attention: ability to focus awareness on specific features in the environment while ignoring others

■ Sustained attention: the ability to maintain focused awareness on a target or an idea

○ Inattentional blindness, multitasking, change blindness

■ Brain can only pay attention one thing at a time

■ Inattentional blindness occurs when unaware of changes that happen right before our eyes because we are paying attention

2. Sleeping and Dreaming

● Stages of Sleep

○ Stage 1: light sleep, not much stimulation needed to wake us up

○ Stage 2: After about 5-7 minutes, theta waves show short periods of fast movement and high energy sleep spindles We also discuss several other topics like europa house uiuc

○ Stage 3: High delta waves, fewer sleep spindles

○ Stage 4: Deepest stage of sleep

● REM sleep

○ Rapid eye movement

○ Much activity during this stage

■ Bursts of eye movement

● Sleep Deprivation

○ If you need an alarm to wake up, you are most likely sleep deprived

○ Sleep debt: the amount of sleep we owe our body that must get “paid back”

● Why do we sleep?

○ Restores neural growth

○ Consolidates growth

○ Produces enzymes that protect against cellular damage

● Sleep disorders

○ Insomnia: difficulty falling and staying asleep

○ Sleepwalk: activities occurring during non-REM sleep that usually occurs when you’re awake

○ Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and weakness in facial and limb muscles

○ Night terrors: when a person walks around, speaks incoherently, and ultimately, terrified from sleep

● The Nature of Dreams

○ When do we dream?

■ While we sleep

○ What do we dream about?

■ Whatever happens throughout the day

○ Why do we dream?

■ Freudian theory: dreams as unconscious wishes, impulse

■ Biological theory: AIM (activation, input, mode)

■ Cognitive theory: dreams are not different than everyday thinking

3. Drugs and Altering Consciousness

● Drugs and the Brain

○ How Drugs Facilitate Synaptic Transmission(Agonists)

■ make action potential happens

○ how drugs inhibit synaptic transmission(antagonists)

○ biological basis of reward

■ physical dependence(addiction): tolerance and withdrawal

■ psychological dependence: compulsive use as coping mechanism

● Major Psychoactive Drugs

○ depressants

■ alcohol: work to decrease CNS and ANS activity, GABA is increased, major inhibitory neurotransmitter

■ opioids(synthetic, lab): strong because they are manmade, reduce pain ○ opiates(made from nature, opium poppy)

■ morphine

■ heroin

○ stimulants: increase alertness and ANS reactivity

■ caffeine

■ amphetamines: increases dopamine, serotonin

■ cocaine: very short effect, easy to abuse

■ ecstasy

○ hallucinogens: create hallucinations, sensations and perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimulation

■ LSD (acid) (major, synthetic)

■ marijuana (natural)

■ psilocybin (mushrooms) (major, natural)

Chapter​ ​7:​ ​Memory 

A. Case Study of H.M

● can’t remember new information

● can remember life facts/events before surgery

● Definition of memory: capacity to preserve and recover information

B. Basic Stages of Memory

● understand how memory follows the information processing system (computer analogy) ● Three stages of modal memory model

○ sensory memory

■ (.5 to sec capacity)

○ short term and working memory

■ without rehearsal, 30 sec capacity

■ can hold about 7 items(for example cellphone number)

■ chunking items into meaningful units helps to retain items in memory ■ working memory: solve a problem at hand

■ Serial position effect: people remember the beginning and end of a list better the middle

○ long term memory

■ limitless capacity

■ permanent storage

■ rehearsal and meaningful information

■ levels of processing

■ structural

■ phonemic

■ semantic

● different long term memory systems

○ Explicit: recall of facts and events

■ declarative

● Semantic: facts and knowledge for example what we learn in

school

● Episodic: memory for experiences we’ve had

■ Implicit: knowledge based on past experiences (how to ride a bike) ● procedural and behavioral: knowledge we have for almost any

behavioral or physical skill we learned

● Process in long term memory

○ Encoding: process by which the brain attends to, takes in, and integrates new information; first stage of long term memory

■ Automatic processing: encoding of information that occurs with little effort

■ Effortful processing: encoding of information that occurs with careful attention and consciousness

■ Mnemonic device: a method such as a rhyme or an acronym devised to help people remember information

○ Consolidation: the process of establishing, stabilizing or solidifying a memory; the second stage of long term memory formation

■ Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation

○ Storage: the retention of memory over time; third stage of memory ■ Hierarchies: a way of organizing related places of information from the most specific feature they have in common to the most general

■ Schemas: mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular people, objects, and events

○ Retrieval: the recovery of information stored in memory; fourth stage of memory ● Brain Processes and Memory

○ Medial Temporal Gland

■ Amygdala: linked to emotion

■ Hippocampus: converting short term memories to long term memories, linked to emotion

○ Frontal Lobe

■ Coordinates encoding, storage, and retrieval

■ Left frontal lobe: encoding

■ Right frontal lobe: episodic retrieval

■ Frontal lobe damage: damage to working energy

○ Protein Synthesis and learning

■ Kandel’s research on sea slug: shock and defensive result each time ■ Protein synthesis with long term learning but not short term: repetition= growth of synapses

○ Biological Basis of Memory

■ Hebb’s rule

● Brain is plastic and new neuronal connections(synapses) develop

as a function of learning

● Cells that fire together, wire together

● Synaptic pruning “use it or lose it”

● Learning takes place because synapses form

● Forgetting

○ Encoding failure

○ Decay

○ Interference: disruption of memory that occurs when other information competes with the information we are trying to recall

■ Proactive: interferes with the learning of new information

■ Retroactive: forget previously learned experiences or information

○ Amnesia: memory loss due to brain injury

■ Retrograde: an inability to remember events and experiences that occur after an injury

■ Anterograde: an inability to remember events and experiences that occur after an injury

○ Memory as Constructive Process

■ Memory Distortion

■ Eyewitness distortion

● Memory is malleable(faulty memory)

● Recognition memory=rapid

■ False memories: belief in an event that did not happen; mall study- people told by a family member they were lost in a mall at age 5, when they were not the person starts imagining it happening

■ Recovered memories: a memory supposedly from a real event; encoded and stored but not retrieved for a long period of time, until a later event

brings it suddenly to consciousness

Chapter​ ​8:​ ​Learning 

● What is learning?

○ Enduring change in behavior or knowledge due to experience

● Classical Conditioning(Pavlov): form of associative learning in which neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which one has an automatic, inborn response ○ Before conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus: meat powder- Unconditioned Response: salivation

○ Before conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus: bell- Conditioned stimuli: no response

○ During Conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus: bell- Unconditioned Stimulus: meat Unconditioned Response: salivation

○ After Conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus: bell, Conditioned Response: salivation ■ Unconditioned: unlearned(automatic, innate)

■ Conditioned: learned

● Second-order conditioning

○ New conditioned stimulus before old conditioned stimulus will lead to conditioned response(after learning/association)

● Phobias and Addictions can be explained by classical conditioning ● Some conditional Stimulus were more likely to produce learning than others ○ Biological preparedness(animals are programmed to fear certain objects) ● Behaviorism and JB Watson

○ Assume that the mind is a ‘tabula rasa’: blank slate

○ focus/study only observable behavior

○ Watson concluded that the environment is the sole determinant of behavior, not internal states

● Operant Conditioning and BF Skinner

○ Learning in which responses come to be defined by consequences ○ Actions rather than events shape behavior

○ Shaping: changing behavior by reinforcement

○ Reinforcement: anything that strengthens a behavior

■ Positive Reinforcement: adding a stimulus to increase behavior

● Exercise a few times and feel better; result: exercise more often

■ Negative reinforcement: taking away stimulus to increase behavior ● Smoking nicotine takes away tension; smoking is reinforced

● Coffee takes away fatigue; drinking is reinforced

■ Punishment decreases likelihood of behavior

● Misbehaviors of Animals

○ “Misbehaviors”

○ Species adaptation and preparedness

● Conditioned taste aversion: the learned aversion to avoid certain foods ○ Example: doughnut and nausea

● Mirror Neurons

● Social Learning Theory

○ Rewards shape behavior

○ Influenced by but extended behaviorism

○ People learn not only from own behavior but from observing others behaviors ○ Bobo doll study: children observed 4 aggressive acts and there were 3 conditions of consequences

■ Reward for beating up bobo doll

■ Punishment for beating up bobo doll

■ No consequence for beating up bobo doll

Chapter​ ​9:​ ​Language,​ ​Thought 

A. Language

● Language Development in Humans

○ From babbling(phonemes) to 60,000 words(average adult vocabulary) to two words to sentences (telegraphic speech)

○ Overgeneralizations of grammar rules (for example ran versus runned) ● Biological Foundation

○ Noam Chomsky (nativism and the language acquisition device)

■ Nativism: the idea that we discover language rather than learn it

■ Language acquisition device: an innate, biologically based capacity to acquire language

○ Sex differences

○ Sensitivity periods (case of genie)

■ Around age 12 is sensitivity period; if we don’t learn to speak by then, may never

■ Second language: gets more difficult after age 7

● Social Learning and language

● Language in non-human primates(apes): can other species learn language? ○ Nonvocal sign language is the only way humans can teach apes to communicate B. What is cognition? (acquiring, processing, and using knowledge)

C. How does the mind represent info?

● Visual representation: mental pictures

○ Store thoughts as images in our “mind’s eye”

● Verbal representation: propositional and semantic representations

○ Concepts: mental grouping of objects, events, or people

○ Concept hierarchy: concepts can be ordered into different levels of specificity ○ Categories: concept that organizes other concepts around what they all share in common

● How do we reason about evidence?

○ Reasoning: process of drawing inferences or conclusions from principles and evidence

○ Inductive reasoning: reasoning from specific observations to general conclusions ■ Laura rude to me(specific)

■ Laura rude to other people(general)

■ Therefore, laura is a rude person(generalization)

■ Aka making an inference

○ Deductive reasoning: reasoning from general propositions to specific conclusions ■ All humans are mortal

■ Socrates is a human

■ Socrates is mortal

○ Critical thinking: the process by which one analyzes, evaluates, forms ideas ● Problem Solving Schemas

○ Expertise

○ Algorithms

● Judgements and Decision Making

○ Heuristic Model (Adaptive yet biased nature of heuristics)

■ Shortcuts that minimize steps to a solution

■ Diagnostic vs base information

■ Biases and heuristics

● Confirmation bias

● Availability

● representativeness

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