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ISU - POL 138 - POL 138 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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ISU - POL 138 - POL 138 Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Illinois State University
Department: Politics
Course: Quantitative Reasoning in Political Science
Professor: Te-Yu Wang
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: POL138, politicalreasoning, politicalscience, Researchmethods, and Politics
Name: POL 138 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for our second exam in POL 138 filled out
Uploaded: 10/31/2017
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background image POL 138 Exam 2 Study Guide Observational data What are the categories of observational data?  What informs the choice of data 
collection? 
The two types of observational data are interviews/focus groups or strictly  observing people’s behaviors. Things to consider are the reactivity of subjects (biased) 
and generalizability of the group
Direct observation:
o
Overt vs. covert  overt is when the participants are aware and covert is when the  participants are not aware o Participant vs. nonparticipant  nonparticipant is covert and structured and  participant is overt and nonstructured o Structured vs. unstructured  structured is systematic observation and recording of  specific behaviors and unstructured is when all behavior and activities are recorded What are the issues with direct observation?  The “Hawthorne Effect”: when people know that they are being studied so they change their behavior; feelings may also get in the way of science How do informants assist direct observation?  How might they impede it?  They are in the group and report back to the observer about the subject at hand without the subject 
knowing. This is good because then the subject does not change his/her attitude
Indirect observation:
o
Accretion vs. erosion  accretion measures a phenomena through indirect  observation of the accumulation of materials whereas erosion does through selective  wear of some material What are the issues with indirect observation?  Validity, data­theory fit/subjectivity What ethical considerations are relevant to observational data?  It may include  information about the behavior of someone who did not specifically agree to participate  in the observational research Document analysis Episodic record  This is when time is not ongoing­ it just focuses on certain moments in  time; ex: personal correspondence, autobiographies, and papers of political figures o Primary sources  direct written record of history; good because it is unbiased but  bad because it only focuses on one point of view and most of the time these are  inaccessible  o Secondary sources  synthesized accounts­ more interpretations and views but  relies on the work of others o Tertiary sources  summaries of secondary sources­ more revised but also relies on  the work of others Running record  ongoing time series; systematic, record keeping, produced by  organizations, carefully stored and easily accessed but there is no control over the data 
collection and we don’t know if they are reliable or still valid
background image What is content analysis?  What does conducting a content analysis consist of?  Analysis  of content or documents is identifying patterns in written text (ex: political debate on  abortion) This consists of selecting a sampling frame, selecting the coverage types,  limiting the scope, and coding what elements of the text matter, and finally analyzing  those elements Survey research Why conduct survey research?  To measure the opinion and attitudes while also  describing samples and populations What are true attitudes?  How can surveys help you measure true attitudes?  What issues 
might surveys have in measuring such attitudes?
What are the different means of conducting surveys?  What benefits and costs come with 
each? 
Interview method which is face to face and has a high quality response but is also  very costly; mail surveys which are a lot cheaper but have low response rates; phone  surveys which have good quality but have decreased since everyone stopped using 
landlines; web­based surveys which can be combined with mail surveys, these miss low 
income people who don’t have internet or a computer but are a lot cheaper What issues need to be considered in writing a survey?  The interview method used, the  way the questions are worded, the order of the questions, and the question type asked How can question wording affect responses?  Framing is longer questions that are more in depth and describe the issue whereas stripped simply state the issue and give options to 
choose from
What effect can question order have on responses?  They can either be randomized or  fixed orders; people may want to stay consistent in their answers  What is a response set?  Asking big blocks of questions increases the rate of low quality  responses What is the difference between open­ended and closed­ended questions?  What are the 
advantages/costs of both? 
Closed ended provide responses and the answers are  comparable but it uses a forced selection of answer categories whereas open ended let 
you write out your answer and let you have your own opinion but these are not as 
comparable and are more likely to be left blank Probability  What is probability?  Why is it important for data analysis?  Probability is the  mathematical theory of measuring uncertainty; the number of times the event can occur  relative to the number of times ANY event can occur o What is the difference between objective and subjective probability?  Objective is  where I KNOW that if I toss a coin enough times, it’ll turn up heads 50% of the time  (informed statement about a system) and subjective is where I THINK there is a 10% 
chance it will rain tomorrow but I do not want to repeat the event (best guess about an
event)

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School: Illinois State University
Department: Politics
Course: Quantitative Reasoning in Political Science
Professor: Te-Yu Wang
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: POL138, politicalreasoning, politicalscience, Researchmethods, and Politics
Name: POL 138 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for our second exam in POL 138 filled out
Uploaded: 10/31/2017
5 Pages 116 Views 92 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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