HIS 1053 Study Guide – Chapters 23 through 26
1. Adolf Hitler nationalistic leader of the Nazis; believed in the racial superiority of the Aryan (German) people; strong commitment to providing Lebensraum (living space) for his “master race”; antisemitism and passionate militarism
2. Anschluss a union; Hitler proclaimed this between Austria and Germany 3. Appeasement the Munich accords were the most prominent element of this policy; was a failure
4. Atlantic Charter document in which the US and Great Britain set out “certain common principles” on which to base “a better future for the world”; called for the final destruction of Nazi tyranny
5. Bank Holiday Roosevelt issued a proclamation closing all American banks for 4 days until Congress could meet in special session to consider bankingreform legislation 6. Battle of Midway Turning point of the Pacific war, in which Japan attempted to attack Midway but was repelled with heavy losses, proving the advantage offered by aircraft carriers over destroyers.
7. Battle of the Bulge German forced drove 55 miles toward Antwerp before they were stopped at Bastogne; battle ended serious German resistance in the west
8. Benito Mussolini leader of the Fascist Party; controlled Italy since the early 1920s 9. Black Tuesday October 29, 1929; the great bull market was falling apart, stock prices declined, and industrial index dropped 43 points; stock market remained depressed for over 4 years
10. Bonus Army 20,000+ veterans; also called the “Bonus Expeditionary Force”; marched into Washington, built crude camps around the city, and promised to stay until Congress approved legislation to pay the bonus; taken down by General Douglas MacArthur (Third Cavalry, two infantry regiments, a machinegun detachment, six tanks)
If you want to learn more check out People tend to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated repeatedly. what is it?
11. Charles E. Coughlin Catholic priest; sermons were broadcast over radio; was notorious for his sympathy for fascism and is outspoken antisemitism; established National Union for Social Justice
12. Charles Lindbergh an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development. 13. CourtPacking Plan Roosevelt proposed a general overhaul of the federal court system;
claimed courts were “overwhelmed” and needed additional manpower and fresh ideas to enable them to cope with their increasing burdens BUT the real purpose was to change the ideological balance of the court Don't forget about the age old question of What is the master controlling and communicating system of the body?
14. DDay Eisenhower; June 6, 1944; western allies landed in northern France to open a second front against Germany; Normandy invasion drove the Germans out of France
15. Demagogue A politician who arouses fervor by appealing to the lowest emotions of a mass audience, such as fear, hatred, and greed.
16. Douglas MacArthur He was one of the mostknown American military leaders of WW2(He liberated the Philippines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945, also he drove back North Korean invaders during the Korean War)
17. Dunkirk a city in northern France on the North Sea where in World War II (1940) 330,000 Allied troops had to be evacuated from the beaches in a desperate retreat under enemy fire 18. Dust Bowl 1930; Texas to the Dakotas; one of the worst droughts in the history of the nation; ruined crops and livestock
19. Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Commander; sent DDay into action 20. Eleanor Roosevelt spoke on behalf of racial justice and put pressure on her husband to ease discrimination against AfricanAmericans; took on issues her husband chose not to embrace 21. Enigma german code system
22. Enrico Fermi discover the radioactivity of uranium If you want to learn more check out What refers to one culture imposes itself (more or less consciously) and tends to destroy at least part of another culture?
23. Fascism an authoritarian and nationalistic right wing system of government and social organization and often includes militarism
24. Final Solution Discussed and planned at Wannase Conference; Was the plan to eliminate all Jews from Europe by: shooting, gas vans, camps
25. Franklin Delano Roosevelt 32nd president of the US and was the leader of the country through most of WWII. In WWII, before US was involved he supplied weapons to the Allied powers then after Pearl Harbor Roosevelt joined war If you want to learn more check out What is the market in which the currency of one country is exchanged for the currency of another?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the main definition of short term memory?
26. Guadalcanal ferocious struggle on this island between U.S. and Japan; Japanese were forced to abandon the island
27. Harry S. Truman senator of Missouri; won acclaim as chairman of the Senate War Investigating Committee (known as the Truman Committee), which had compiled an impressive record of uncovering waste and corruption in wartime production.
28. Herbert Hoover Believed that the economic recovery of the United States depended primarily on the business community; Approached the task of caring for unemployed workers by emphasizing the importance of private charities; Supported federal loans to private businesses and to state and local governments; Established the reconstruction Finance Corporation in a belated attempt to fight the Great Depression
29. Hindenburg German dirigible that crashed in flames in Lakehurst, New Jersey (1937); produced an enormous national reaction due to the live radio account by a broadcaster “Oh, the humanity! Oh, the humanity!” Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main purposes of fat?
30. Hiroshima August 5, 1945; America dropped an atomic weapon on the Japanese industrial center; more than 80,000 died, others suffered from the effects of radioactive fallout
31. Holocaust Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews and others; transported them to concentration camps and systematically murdered them, often in gas chambers 32. Hoovervilles name for the shantytowns that unemployed people established on the outskirts of cities
33. Huey Long senator of Louisiana; established the ShareOurWealth Plan/SHareOurWealth Society
34. Indian Reorganization Act John Collier; restored to the tribes the right to own land collectively
35. Isolationists isolationism: A national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs. Americans were extremely isolationist in the period leading up to WWII
36. John L. Lewis talented, flamboyant, and eloquent leader of the United Mine Workers; created the Committee of Industrial Organizations (CIO, 1936) to rival The American Federation of Labor (AFL)
37. John Steinbeck author whose novels portrayed the trials of workers and migrants in California
38. KelloggBriand Pact Secretary of State Frank Kellogg proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy
39. Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9, 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews and destroyed many jewish properties
40. LendLease government could sell and lend/lease armaments to any nation deemed “vital to the defense of the United States” (America could funnel weapons to England on the basis of no more than Britain's promise to return or pay for them when the war was over) 41. Luftwaffe the German airforce
42. Manhattan Project a secret military project created in 1942 to produce the first U.S. nuclear weapon
43. MolotovRibbentrop Pact Also called the Non Aggression Pact; Germany and the Soviets promise not to fight each other, agree to split Poland, and the Soviets gain control of Finland. 44. Okies hundreds of thousands of families from the Dust Bowl who traveled to California and other states; many worked as agricultural migrants
45. Pearl Harbor At 7:55 A.M. on Sunday, December 7, 1941, a wave of Japanese bombers– taking off from aircraft carriers hundreds of miles away–attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor
46. Purple signifies that a soldier was injured or killed in action
47. Rape of Nanking Infamous genocidal war crime committed by Japanese military in Nanjing. started in 1937 and lasted a few weeks. The Japanese army raped, stole and killed prisoners of war and civilians
48. Rosie the Riveter famous wartime image that symbolized the new importance of the female industrial workforce
49. Scottsboro Case March 1931; 9 black teenages arrested in Alabama for vagrancy and disorder, 2 white women accused them of rape, overwhelming evidence that women had NOT been raped, but an allwhite jury quickly convicted all 9 boys
50. Securities and Exchange Commission June 1934; policed the stock market; was an indication of how far the financial establishment had fallen in public estimation 51. Soap Opera popular on radio, especially with women
52. Social Security Act (1935) established several programs elderly assistance, pension programs, and unemployment insurance
53. St. Louis 1939; vessel with 900 Jewish refugees immigrating to US. officials refused their request to dock at Fort Lauderdale, FL, because US had voted no in poll to increase Jewish immigration quota by 75%. ship had to turn back to Germany from US to die, Coast Guard sent to make sure they went back
54. StabintheBack myth 1918 After the war, many soldiers were left feeling abandoned by the government. They felt they could carry on fighting and were betrayed 55. Tennessee Valley Authority intended to stop the disastrous flooding that had plagued the Tennessee Valley; improved water transportation and provided electricity to thousands who have never had it before; made no serious efforts to challenge local customs and racial prejudices 56. Vichy France Nazicontrolled; Algeria and Morocco
57. War of the Worlds most famous radio broadcast; based on a novel of the same name; was read over radio and millions of people believed it
58. Washington Conference of 1921 an attempt to prevent what was threatening to become a costly and destabilizing naval armaments race between the U.S., Britain, and Japan 59. WPA Works Progress Administration; the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.
60. Zoot Suit Riot (Los Angeles) 4 day riot; white sailor invaded Mexican American communities and attacked them; police did little to restrain the sailors