Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to AU - Hist 1020 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to AU - Hist 1020 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

AU / History / HIST 1020 / What was woodrow wilson's plan to end world war1?

What was woodrow wilson's plan to end world war1?

What was woodrow wilson's plan to end world war1?


School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 2 test 3 study guide
Description: These are all the terms and slide filling notes for the upcoming test over sections 15-20.
Uploaded: 11/03/2017
10 Pages 170 Views 12 Unlocks

Test 3 Study Guide

What was woodrow wilson's plan to end ww1?


 - Woodrow Wilson- President that entered the US into WWI to help end it  - The Spring Offensive- a series of last ditch effort German attacks in the spring of  1918 along the Western Front

 - Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- military subs in the water, regardless of which  side they were on, basically gave themselves the authority to sink any boat (both  nonmilitary and military) of the enemies that they so pleased.

 - Wilson’s 14 points- made by Woodrow Wilson as a statement of principles for  peace to end WWI which was debated upon and written among the public to deter the possibility of secret pacts among nations and it also removed the Brest Litovsk Treaty Terms

Why did the communists in russia fight a civil war in russia from 1918 to 1921?

 - National Self-Determination- Creation of national governmental institutions by a  group of people who view themselves as a distinct nation

 - Treaty of Versailles- Treaty signed in the Palace of Versailles which ended WWI in  1919. It called for the creation of new countries and self determination, as well as  German reparation payments but lead to continued imperialism and bitter  feelings and anxiety among world powers

 - German Reparation Payments- The payment of Germany to the US and Allied  nations of Europe as “reparation” or repayment for the war they were considered  to starting

 - League of Nations- the precursor to the United Nations, was a organization of  world powers whose principle mission was to maintain world peace. (which it  ultimately failed at with the start of WWII because they lacked any true  “authority”)

What was the purpose of the tennessee valley authority act?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the three mechanisms for localizing sound?

 - Mandate System- the transfer of some territories from the control of one country  to another following WWI

 - War Communism- economic system that existed in Russia from 1918 to 1921  which was introduced by Lenin to combat the economic problems brought by the  Russian Civil War in a combo of emergency measures and socialist dogma

 - Leninism- the precursor to socialism which called for the rule of a dictator over  the proletariat  

 - “Vanguard of the Proletariat”- Lenin’s vanguard served as a highly disciplined,  centralized party that worked to basically completely fill the proletariat at  whatever costs with socialists

 - New Economic Policy- a move created by Lenin toward “state capitalism” in the  USSR

 - Leon Trotsky- Marxist revolutionary which ultimately joined the Bolsheviks in a  Communist uprising in the Soviet Union

 - Stalinism- political policies started by Joseph Stalin which include rapid  industrialization, socialism, a centralized state, and collectivization of agriculture  - Capitalist Wreckers- those that tried to sneak their way into USSR politics to try  and instill capitalist ideals Don't forget about the age old question of 4 types of social influence are?

 - “Socialism in one Country”- building up the industry and military in the USSR  before expanding the socialistic revolution abroad

 - Soviet Gigantism- the Soviets way of trying to make themselves look better and  intimidate other countries by having the biggest rockets, steel mills, ice-breakers,  etc.

 - Dneprostroi- spot where Stalin installed a huge hydroelectric damn on the Dnieper River which he used the abuse of volunteer labor by German Mennonites to  complete which lead to huge economic impacts

 - Magnitostroi- spot where Stalin created a “steel city” which was used to  intimidate other countries to show how much Russia’s industrialization had grown  - Belomorstroi- the “White Seas Canal” which was created by prison labor (captive  engineers and workforce which lead to a lot of human rights abuse) to allow  Russia to begin to control the seas We also discuss several other topics like What are motives?

 - Soviet Collectivisation- aimed to consolidate individual landholdings and labour  into collective farms 

 - Kulaks- affluent peasants in the USSR which were expelled by Stalin for their  farms and land

 - Peter Palchinsky- a trained mining engineer that was an expert in worker  efficiency that aided in establishing scientific management for the USSR  - The Great Purge- a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union from 1936- 1938 which involved a large scale removal of the Communist Party and  government officials, repressions of peasants and the use of the Red Army for  police surveillance and to enforce any change or removal deemed necessary  - Totalitarianism -a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its  authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever  feasible

 - The Machine in the Garden - a book written by Leo Marx about the interruption of  pastoral scenery by technology due to the industrialization of America  - Western Democracy - a representative democracy in which the ability of the  elected representatives to expertise decision-making power is subject to the rule  of law and usually moderated by a constitution that emphasizes the protection of  the rights and freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the  leaders and on the extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised  against the rights of minorities Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 5 senses as measuring devices?

 - Eugenics- a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality  of a human population Don't forget about the age old question of Between the 2 photosystems, electrons move down where?

 - Social Darwinism - applying the evolutionary concept of natural selection to  human society

 - Creditor Nation- a nation with a cumulative balance of payment surplus  - Neutrality Acts- laws passed to limit US involvement in future wars  - Welfare Capitalism - capitalism with the inclusion of social welfare policies to keep workers refreshed and happy to increase efficiency

 - “Five Dollar Day”- Ford offered his workers $5 a day (twice minimum wage) IF  they met certain stipulations  

 - Consumerism - a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the  acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts We also discuss several other topics like What is pelvic girdle?

 - Mass Automobility- describing the craze for personal automobiles in the early  1900s

 - “Fordism”- used to describe Ford’s system of mass production and the typical  mode of economic growth after a war

 - Alfred Sloan- created General Motors and created the first line of different style  cars for different purposes/locations/price ranges

 - Women’s Suffrage - the right of women to vote in elections by way of the 19th  amendment

 - Isolationism - the idea that the US should stay out of world politics and focus  internally

 - Prohibition- prohibited the production/sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920-1933  in the US

 - Mass Culture- media which is broadcast or otherwise distributed to individuals  instead of arising from their day-to-day interactions with each other (like radio  and movies)

 - Deflation- deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services  - The Great Depression- a severe worldwide economic depression that took place  mostly from 1929-1932, originating in the United States which lead to mass  unemployment

 - The New Deal- a series of federal programs, public work projects, and financial  reforms and regulations, enacted in the United States in response to the Great  Depression

 - Tennessee Valley Authority- a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic  development to the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great  Depression 

 - Father Coughlin- a controversial Canadian-American Roman Catholic priest based  in the United States

 - Huey Long- “The Kingfish”, an outspoken populist and politician who denounced  the wealthy and the banks and called for a "Share Our Wealth" program  - Airmindedness - the realization of the potential to use aircraft in future wars  - Futurama- an exhibition by GM at the 1939 New York’s World’s Fair presenting a  possible future United States 20 years into the future

 - Fascism- a political ideology that advocates authoritarian leadership, intense  national loyalty, cultural renewal, and rejection of both liberal democracy and  socialism

 - Mussolini- leader of the Fascist Party and dictator of Italy

 - Pact of Steel- friendship agreement between Germany and Italy  - Weimar Republic - an unofficial, historical designation for the German state as it  existed between 1919 and 1933

 - Hyperinflation Crisis- led prominent economists and politicians to seek a means to stabilize German currency

 - Adolf Hitler- Austrian leader of the Nazi Party and future Military Dictator (Führer)  of Germany

 - Aryan Race- a myth used as a founding principle and purpose of Hitler’s  conquests in Europe basically stating that only those of European and Western  Asian decent were higher than any other peoples on Earth

 - Stab-in-the-back Myth- a belief of right-wing Germans that the Germany Army was not at fault for losing WWI but instead those on the home front

 - Triumph of the Will- one of the most popular and wide spread forms of German  propaganda showcasing German “power and unity”

 - Kristallnacht- “The Night of Broken Glass”, a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany in November of 1938

 - KMT- a major political party in China which accepted a “One China Principle” and  established the Republic of China after overthrowing the Qing

 - Chaing Kaisheck- lead the KMT as ruler of the Republic of China   - Communist Party of China- the founding and ruling political party of the People’s  Republic of China

 - Mao Zedong- Chinese communist revolutionary and founding father of the  People’s Republic of China  

 - Japanese Militarism - the belief that a nation should be measured by their military  strength lead to military supremacy over civilian authorities

 - Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere-the “bloc of Asian nations led by the  Japanese and free of Western powers”

 - The Manchurian Crisis- the invasion of Manchuria, a Chinese colony, by Japan  which basically was unable to be stopped by the League of Nations, ultimately  showing its lack of authority in world conflicts

 - Manchukuo- the Manchurian Puppet state formed by Japan

 - Italian-Ethiopian War- Mussolini lead Italy into Ethiopia to attempt to conquer it  and while he failed, it began a chain of events that steadily increased world  tensions between powers

 - Lebensraum - the territory that a state or nation believes is needed for its natural  development

 - Maginot Line- a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations  built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion

 - Spanish Civil War- didn’t quite make WWII inevitable, but it definitely made  tensions grow that much more than the already high level which they were at  - The Anschluss - the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on March 12, 1938  - Sudeten Land Crisis- began in February 1938 when Hitler demanded self determination for all Germans in Austria and Czechoslovakia. Shortly after,  Austrian Nazis rioted and invited Hitler to invade, which he did in March, declaring Anschluss

 - Appeasement- a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to  an enemy power in order to avoid conflict

 - Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact- a Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact

 - Blitzkrieg- “lightning war”, a military tactic designed to create disorganization  among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated  firepower

 - Evacuation at Dunkirk- “Operation Dynamo”, the evacuation of around 340,000  Allied troops from the French seaport of Dunkirk between May 26-June 4 1940 by  Allied ships and civilian sailing and boating vessels  

 - The Battle of Britain- battle in which the Royal Air Force defended the United  Kingdom against large-scale attacks by the German Air Force

 - Chain Home System- world’s first radar system created by Britain   - Rape of Nanjing- an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by  Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing, then the capital of the Republic  of China

 - Operation Barbarossa - Hitler’s plan to betray and invade the Soviet Union  - Pearl Harbor- the American Naval base in Hawaii which was attacked by surprise  by the Japanese Empire on Dec. 7, 1941 which brought the US into WWII  - Big Three- the main powers of the Allies (US, Britain and the Soviet Union)  - Fall of Singapore- when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of  Singapore and conquered them

 - The Arsenal of Democracy- a promise by FDR to supply the Allies with money and  equipment as much as they needed it without actually physically fighting in the  war

 - The Great Patriotic War- the war fought by the Soviets in retaliation against  Germany for Operation Barbarossa

 - Strategic Bombing- a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of  defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce  and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both

 - Norden Bomb Sight- an analog bomb sight used in US military aircrafts during  WWII

 - Firebombing of Dresden- the US/British Air Raid of the capital city of the German  state of Saxony at Dresden

 - Stalingrad- Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the  city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia where the Russians refused to retreat at  whatever cost

 - Battle of Kursk- the climax of Operation Citadel pitting the German and Soviet  forces against each other with over 6000 tanks, 4000 aircraft, and 2,000,000 men fighting

 - Island Hopping Strategy- a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific  War against Japan

 - Burma Road- the sole lifeline to China during WWII

 - Normandy Invasion- Allies launch of the largest amphibious invasion in history  when they assaulted the coast of Normandy, France, on June 6, 1944  - Total Warfare- a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the  territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in  which the laws of war are disregarded

 - The Holocaust- the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and  murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborator  - Concentration Camps- labor and death camps which held all those captured  during the Holocaust

 - The Nuremberg Trials- the trial of any surviving Nazi party, military or industry  members between 1945-1949 for war crimes by the Allies

 - Yalta Conference - the meeting of the US (FDR) , British (Churchill) and Soviet  Union (Stalin) to discuss Europe’s postwar reorganization

 - The Manhattan Project- the American research and development undertaking  which produced the first atomic bomb

 - Operation Downfall- plan to invade mainland Japan by using Okinawa as a base  and then attacking the main island of Kyushu which would have been the largest  planned amphibious invasion ever and also the largest loss of life ever

 - Trinity Test- the successful first detonation of a nuclear weapon  - The Potsdam Conference- the last Allied conference of WWII with the substation of the new US president Harry S. Truman

 - United Nations- founded in 1945, and made a better, more authoritative version  of the League of Nations. Gave the big five (France, Britain, US, Soviet Union, and  China) veto powers

 - Socialist Imperialism - socialist in words and imperialist in deeds  - Super Power- world leaders in economy and military power (US and USSR)  - Iran Crisis of 1946- stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish  occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances

 - Soviet Buffer Zone- the USSR’s desired protective curtain of countries to keep  itself safe from possible future attacks

 - Truman Doctrine- the US would support countries fighting Communist  insurgencies like Greece and Turkey, used containment as a foreign policy  - The Marshal Plan- foreign aid offered to all European countries to help rebuild  Europe except for Soviet controlled countries

 - Iron Curtain- the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas  from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991  - NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization, among Capitalist/Western countries  which justified US military forces in Europe permanently

 - Warsaw Pact- the alignment of Communist countries with the USSR which allowed  them access to Eastern bloc politics

 - Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM’s)- a guided ballistic missile with a  minimum range of 5,500 km primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery  - Missile Gap- the perceived deficiency in American nuclear defense based on the  idea that the USSR had more ICBMs  

 - Hydrogen Bomb- a second generation nuclear fusion bomb hundreds of times  larger and more destructive than fission nuclear bombs

 - Strategic Air Command - controlled strategic nuclear bombers and ICBMs  - Nuclear Football- the briefcase containing the buttons to launch US nuclear ICBMs  - Bert the Turtle- a comical childs film for education on response to a nuclear blast  in the US

 - Dr. Strangelove- A film about what could happen if the wrong person pushed the  wrong button (the button to send all the world’s ICBMs)

 - Werner Von Braun- German rocket scientist under Nazi Germany who later was  the leader in developing the US space department

 - Doomsday Clock- a meter of how close the world is to nuclear war  - Cuban Missile Crisis- a 13 day standoff between the US and USSR after it was  discovered that there were Soviet nukes in their allied nation of Cuba  - Military Industrial Complex- an informal alliance between a nation's military and  the arms industry which supplies it, seen together as a vested interest which  influences public policy

 - AK-47 & AKM- the weapon of choice for the Soviet Army

 - Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)- a military doctrine and national security  policy based on the idea that in the event of a nuclear war the complete  annihilation of both the attacker and defender will automatically be the outcome

 - Détente- the easing of strained relations, especially in political situation  - Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty- (SALT), limits anti-ballistic missiles and  establishes an interim nuke agreement as well as limits types of bombs and  delivery systems

 - Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI/Star Wars)- a proposed missile defense system  intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear  weapons

 - Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons- an international treaty whose  objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons

 - Space Race- the competition between the US and USSR to see who would be the  first to both establish a space program and put a man on the moon  - Sputnik- Soviet’s first satellite launched into Earth’s orbit

 - Yuri Gagarin- the first man in space and primary subject of Soviet space  propaganda  

 - The Moon Shot- the Apollo space missions which aimed to put an American man  on the moon

- N-1 Rocket- a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond  low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V

Slide Filler Notes

Section 15 

- Causes of US entrance into WWI

- sinking of the Lusitania in 1915

- Zimmerman telegram

- Germany tried to combat the US entrance with a final unsuccessful push into  Russia

- Russian supplies and territory were simply too great to overcome (like when  Napoleon tried to conquer them)

- Armistice- a ceasefire

- The armistice of WWI was on Nov. 11, 1918 at the 11th hour

- The League of Nations gave every world power some accountability to one  another to not gain too much power over someone else

Section 16 

- England, France, and the US had major impacts on the Russian Civil War - The Battle of Warsaw was a decisive victory for the Poles against the invading  Soviet’s Red Army

- state capitalism- the state has sole authority over the production and use of  capital  

- factionalism- arguments between small groups within a larger group which can  lead to decay

- politburo- the policy making committee for the Communist Party

- International communism refers to the grand overall consistent themes and  beliefs that communism holds while national communism refers to the specific  degrees to which each individual communist state takes those beliefs or changes  them

- autarky- economic independence or self-sufficiency

- Industrial party trial of 1930 was a show trial in which several soviet scientists  and economists were accused of planning a coup against the Soviet Union - The NKVD was the secret police for the Soviets which eradicated basically anyone that could stand up to or renounce communism in the country

- The Western world began to drastically develop new ideologies and ideas about  life, technology and society following WWI

- “Merchants of Death”- used to describe the industries and banks that supplied  and funded WWI

- The Ford Sociological Dept. did an array of studies on the lives of their workers to  see what circumstances of their daily lives made them better or worse workers ­ Buying on margin is borrowing money from a broker to purchase stock. ­ vertical integration was Ford’s way of combining multiple stages of production under one  common roof through the assembly line

­ Ford focused primarily on consistency and cheapness. GM focused on the same cheapness  but wanted to give people options on their cars for relatively the same price. ­ 19th amendment gave women the right to vote

­ Prohibition lead to a time of the largest organized crime rate in American history ­ Black Tuesday­ the day the stock market crashed on October 28, 1929 ­ The gold standard was used to base the worth of American paper money directly to gold ­ Hawley­Smoot tariff­ raised the tariff on over 20,000 imported goods

­ Keynesian economics­ the theory that during recessions economic output is strongly  influenced by aggregate demand (supply and demand)

Section 17 

­ Mussolini rose to power on the dream of brining Italy back to the same power it had been as  the Roman Empire

­ The Dawes plan was made to assists in WWI reparations to try and resettle the world  economy. It called for the US to loan $2.5 billion to Germany so they could pay $2 billion in  reparation payments to the Allies who could then pay the US $2.6 billion in war debts. It was  a vicious, almost pointless cycle of debt. 

­ Racial Pseudo­Science is the belief that there is a race that is above any others ­ After the Qing in China, it became a Warlord governed country

­ The Shanghai massacre was the violent suppression of Community Party of China  organizations in Shanghai by the conservative forces of Chiang Kai­Sheik  ­ The Marco Polo Bridge battle started the Second Sino­Japanese war between China and  Japan

­ The Munich Agreement gave Germany to take parts of the Czechoslovakian border which  had a majority of German speakers which they called “Sudetenland”

Section 18 

- The surprise attack by the Japanese on the US Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii  awoke a “sleeping giant” by urging the once passive US to join the Allies in WWII - When they entered the war, this brought them out of the Great Depression by  creating jobs and a new need for the once busy industrial buildings and factories  to now be creating war supplies and equipment

- Lend-Lease Programs: provided aid to any country whose defense was vital to the  security of the US

- Stalin gave order No. 227 as a response to Operation Barbarossa which made the  Soviet soldiers refuse to surrender or retreat, even if it meant certain death/  - Incendiary bombs: designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using  fire

- The turning point of the battle between Germany and the Soviets was held at  Stalingrad

- Chongqing: large Chinese city that was bombed in an attempt to terrorize the  Chinese

- Battle of the Bulge: last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front - V-E Day: the day the Allies won Europe and Germany surrendered (8 days after  Hitler committed suicide)

- Architects of the “Final Solution” aka the Holocaust: Adolf Hitler, Reinhard  Heydrich, Heinrich Himmler, and the Schutzstaffel (SS)

Section 19 

- The Yalta Conference was held from Feb. 4-11 1945 with the likes of Stalin,  Churchill and FDR present to decide how to move forward from WWII - They all agreed on 3 things: unconditional surrender of Germany, German  demilitarization and denazification, and free and fair elections in Poland - The Einstein-Szilard Letter was written by Leo Szilard and signed by Albert  Einstein and sent to FDR prompting him to start the Manhattan Project which  developed the atomic bomb

- The MP was lead by J. Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves - Battle of Okinawa: codenamed Operation Iceberg which was fought on the island  of Okinawa between the US and Japanese armies which lead to the death of over  20,000 men and leaving another 55,000 injured  

- Before the development of the atomic bomb, the US was going to laugh Operation Downfall which would have been the largest amphibious invasion ever. They  would use Okinawa as a base and invade the island of Japan in Nov. of 1945 to  hopefully end the war. If it was anything like the battle of Okinawa, it would’ve  caused the largest loss of life this world had ever seen.

- Potsdam Conference (July 17-Aug. 2, 1945) was like the Yalta Conference with the  same countries represented, but now Truman and Attlee represented the US and  Britain  

- This lead the Soviets to enter the war against Japan with the US so long as the  Germans paid reparations to the Soviet Union for Operation Barbarossa - V-J Day: (Aug. 15, 1945) marked the surrender of Japan to the Allies, effectively  ending WWII

- Although the war was over, there was still a lot of tension between EUR/US and  the USSR because the EUR/US possession of nukes and USSR’s huge army. It  eventually turned into Capitalism vs. Communism

- United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC): was formed on Jan. 24, 1946  “to deal with the problems raised by the discovery of atomic energy.” - The aims of the US and USSR post-WWII were dead opposite, ultimately leading to the start of the Cold War.

Section 20 Notes  

- 6 main nuclear war technologies:  

- strategic bombers

- nuclear bombs


- hydrogen bombs

- nuclear command and control

- civil defense

- Nuclear war wouldn’t just be war, it would mean complete annihilation - The nuclear command and control was very much based on a command hierarchy and lead to constant drills to ensure preparedness  

- Von Braun was considered a “Dreamer of Space and an Engineer of War” - The doomsday clock is always running and has been since its creation by the  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists in 1947.

- The USSR tried to spread communism to neighboring nations by way of supplying  them with free weapons (AK-47’s and AKM’s) and by providing government and  economic advisors and aid

- Spying became a huge asset to both sides during this time with constant threats  of double agents and rats planted behind enemy lines and also the use of U2 spy  planes (US), astro-spies (spying from space) and by the corona spy satellites

- The Cold War not only lead to the real threat of nuclear war between the US and  USSR, it also brought about the development of nuclear programs by Britain,  France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea

- Laika was the first creature launched into space from earth in it being a Soviet  dog. It later died a few hours after launch

- Alan Shepherd was the first American man in space (1961) but was unable to go  into orbit and he gave the US hope that they could catch up to the Soviets - The Soviets then sent Alexey Leonov for the first space walk of man, or the first  time man came out of his aircraft to be in open space itself

- Kennedy then requested the help of Von Braun to develop the Saturn V rocket to  put an American team on the moon nicknamed the “moon shot” - The soviets tried to match this effort with their N-1 rocket but all tests resulted in  failures and the campaign was terminated in 1974

- The US then created the space shuttle in 1981 (lasted until 2011) which was  mirrored by the Soviet Buran Spacecraft in 1988

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here