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LSU / Engineering / MC 2000 / what is Advertising?

what is Advertising?

what is Advertising?


School: Louisiana State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Mass Communication 2000
Professor: Leonard apcar
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: masscomm, masscommunication, and mc2000
Cost: 50
Name: MC 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers chapter 8,9, and 11, featuring info from lecture and the book. It also includes notes from the guest speakers and two documentaries we watched in class.
Uploaded: 11/04/2017
8 Pages 12 Views 17 Unlocks

Baptiste 1

what is Advertising?

MC 2000 Exam 2 Study Guide

Covers chapters 8,9, and 11, Guest Speakers, and Documentaries

“Frontline”​ ​Documentary

● For this generation, you are what you like.

● Companies are changing the way they communicate with consumers, through social media

○ By “liking” something, you are turning over data to a company that will help them sell something to you.

● “The Audience” is a company that helps upcoming stars brand themselves by taking care of/managing their social media

● With social media, you are your own media company

● Companies get the audience to sell the product for them through social media ○ Your audience is your best marketer

○ This is good because the consumer becomes a free worker

● Kiip: a company that lets companies give rewards on apps for people completing things

Chapter​ ​8:​ ​Public​ ​Relations

why does A ​​brand​​ name​​ aims ​​to​​ make ​​a ​​product​​ a ​​household ​​name?

● PR is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.

○ Public: a group of stakeholders

○ Involves information, activities, and policies which organizations seek to create favorable attitudes and counter adverse attitudes We also discuss several other topics like nmsu chme

● Dialogic Theory

○ PR works to convince people through dialogue that involves speaking not at or to them, but with them

○ Genuine dialogue leads to genuine consensus

● Media relations: all dealings with reporters and other members of media organizations who might tell a story about a client

○ The major tool is a “press release”

■ The distribution and format have changed over time due to advances in technology

● Specializations

○ The functions within PR vary dramatically

why does A ​​brand ​​image ​​is ​​the ​​brand’s ​​personality?

Don't forget about the age old question of econ 1210

○ No “one size fits all”

○ Crisis communication: when something bad happens in the organization ■ Ex: BP oil spill, a fight on a school campus

○ Political communication: lobbying, etc.

○ Sports

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○ Investor relations 

● Activities

○ Development = raising money

○ Organizations are their own media

● Advertising: the activity of explicitly paying for media space or time in order to direct favorable attention to certain goods or services We also discuss several other topics like bsc1005 broward college

○ Based on audience

○ PR is about reputation, advertising is about goods and services 

● Audience-focused writing

○ Think about your audience, their needs, background, etc.

○ Consider your audience in everything you write

● Research focused

○ You want goals, a path to achieve those goals, and a way to determine whether or not the goals were met/what you used worked

■ Did somebody engage with this?

○ Assessment and research are involved in PR

■ Strategies are needed and used

● Problem-oriented

○ PR can be about fixing problems and attaining goals

Guest​ ​Speaker​ ​#1

● Job involves putting out releases and responding to media inquiries

● Public communication and media relations take up most of the day

● Educates people about the vet school’s mission

○ Their branding and reputation

● Has to know about all areas of the vet school

● All social media posts are planned out before posting

○ They use themed posts to promote the posts

● Sharing and comments are a high level of engagement and better than just “likes” ● Things to do as a PR officer

○ Think about what you would do in a crisis before it happens

○ Know the people who don’t like you/your organization and be prepared to reply to criticism

● Crisis communication

○ Have a designated place for media people to be If you want to learn more check out uncg password reset

○ Know who is going to talk and have a key message that everyone knows, in case they are asked by reporters

Baptiste 3

Chapter​ ​9:​ ​Advertising

● Definition: a goal of persuading customers by providing them with important information about the company's products

● In 2015, $600 billion was spent on advertising

● Bob Greenberg: an advertising pioneer

○ The first to talk about cell phones as a new advertising medium

○ Currently into data visualization

■ This enables people to more easily explore and analyze complex statistical data → more user friendly

○ The Greenberg Lesson = Advertising is all about motivating consumers ■ The ads themselves must be the entertainment

● Consumer Economies

○ Advertising is a major component of modern economies Don't forget about the age old question of ucr ee

○ When production of goods and services is up, so is advertising spending, and vice versa

● Advertising → Economic Prosperity

○ Advertising has no role /purpose when survival is the primary concern; it is a product of a plentiful society

● Advertising and Democracy

○ Without advertising, many of the media outlets people rely on would not exist as we know them We also discuss several other topics like spanish 1 final exam study guide

○ Americans look to mass media for information to help individual decision making ● Industrialization's Effect on Advertising

○ Johannes Gutenburg’s Movable Type: made mass production of printed word possible

○ Benjamin Day’s “The New York Sun”: the first penny newspaper (1833) ■ Recognized and exploited the new changes in advertising made possible by the I.R.

○ Railroads created new networks for mass distribution of advertising

● Social Change Influences Advertising

○ In the 60s and 70s, the primary goal was to appeal to young people, many whom were disenfranchised

○ Many ads featured strong sexist themes and stereotypes

● Advertising Agencies

○ N.W. Ayer & Son = the first ad agency

○ Services include:

■ Counsel on selling products and services

■ Design services

■ Expertise on placing ads in advantageous media

Baptiste 4

○ Types of Compensation

■ Only 10-12% of contracts use a standard %

■ Agency compensation is generally negotiated

■ Commission compensation have largely been replaced with performance contracts

● Advertiser pay agency’s cost and a negotiated profit

■ Equity performance contract pays agencies with shares in the company ● Media Plans

○ Lay out where ads are placed

■ This ensures that ads reach the right target audience

○ Media buyers use formulas, some variables include:


■ Media reach = gauge the size of the audience exposed to an ad through a particular medium

○ Audit Bureau of Circulations

■ Verify circulation claims

● Internet-based Advertising

○ Websites serve niche audience, enhancing likelihood of reaching people with an interest in specific products

● Brand Strategies

○ A brand name aims to make a product a household name.

■ When successful, a brand name becomes the generic identifier

○ A brand image is the brand’s personality

■ Its name, packaging, price, style of advertising, and nature itself

○ The phenomenon that people “taste” images

○ Store vs. Personality brands

■ Store brands are often manufactured by the retailer and associated with a specific store

● Ex: Trader Joe’s

■ Personality brands are individual brands often associated with a

celebrity/famous person that reflect the reputation and values of the

associated personality

○ Other types of brands include: place, ethical, and activist

● Advertising Tactics

○ Lowest common denominator (LCD) = messages for the broadest audience possible

● Millenials

○ Largest consumer demographic (1.3 trillion buying power)

○ Different consumption patterns from people in the past

Baptiste 5

■ Don’t watch as much tv and don’t care much about celebrity endorsements ■ They trust their own peers on social media, which is more influential for them

● Strategies to Beat Clutter/Shifting Audience

○ Product Integration

■ Ex: Youtubers trying a new product and inviting viewers along for the experience

■ For this to work, it needs to be:

● Good/entertaining

● Honest

○ Product Placement

■ Not engaging with the product but shows a shot of it

■ Good for brand awareness

■ When the audience connects with the brand of the show and the products connect, this can work well

○ Get the Audience to Sell for You/Engagement

■ Ex: ALS ice bucket challenge

○ Targeted, Data-driven Online Advertising

■ Cookies are tracked to find out what you like

Chapter​ ​11:​ ​Mass​ ​Media​ ​Effects

Media Theory

● Def: An idea or set of ideas that intends to explain facts or events; a set of general principles

● Mass Media Research: use of systematic methods to understand or solve problems Mass Communication Theory

● There is no “one” mass comm theory, there are many theories that try to explain or predict specific aspects of the mass comm process

● It is interdisciplinary

● They are dynamic; constantly evolving as the mass comm environment changes Mass Society Theory

● Early 20th century

● This theory held that media are corrupting influences and undermine social order ● Walter Lippman created “magic bullet theory”

○ Media produces powerful effects and audiences are defenseless

Social Relations and Media

● In the 40s

● Two step flow model:

a. Media content is picked up by people who use it frequently

Baptiste 6

b. These people act as opinion leaders when they discuss media content with others ● This was the first theory that made the audience a bigger part of the model; the audience is active

Three Areas of Study

1. Studying opinion and behavior change

a. How what you consume influences what you think

b. Ex: Political ad’s influence are studied a lot

2. Studying what people learn from media

a. Children are especially studied (ex: Sesame Street)

b. They study what elements of the media makes it have an impact

3. Studying why, when, and how people use media

a. Current issue: digital divide

b. Involves understanding why people consume media; helps to understand how they learn from it

c. Knowledge gap

Critical Approaches

● Considers the power of larger social forces that influence the media environment ● 4 examples

○ Capitalism: how does the fact that a large company owns the media outlet affect what content is distributed?

○ Critical theory: explores the corrosive influence of capitalism on culture ○ Cultivation studies: how media systematically portrays certain populations in unfavorable ways; helps certain groups retain their power

○ Common criticism: overstates the media’s influence on society

Cultural Studies

● Mass media present audiences with technology and text, and audiences find meaning in them

Limited Effects

● No single theory can encompass a wide variety of media effects

● Influenced by:

○ Social categories

○ Personal relationships

○ Social and societal constructions

Attitude Change

● Explains how people’s attitudes are formed, shaped, and changed through communication and how those attitudes influence behavior

● Examples:

○ Selective exposure

○ Selective retention

Baptiste 7

○ Selective perception

Cathartic Effect

● Watching violence gives you a release of any pent up aggression inside Aggression Stimulation

● Watching violent content will make you more aggressive

Three Elements to Judge this Research

1. Needs to control for preexisting conditions

2. Are you measuring what you think you’re measuring?

3. Are you excluding external factors?

Catalytic Theory

● There are a lot of factors to determine whether someone will be violent (besides just the media)

● The media can be just one piece of influence

Influences Perception

● Consuming violence through media changes your perception of the world ● The people who watch a lot of crime shows, psychological thrillers, etc. are more likely to believe that the world is very violent

● People also base it on their own community

Desensitizing Theory

● The more violent media you consume, the more desensitized to it they are Short-term Effects

● Intensification: for a period of time after consuming violent material, you will behave differently than normal; lower inhibitions

● Mimicry: are kids more likely to mimic when they see violence on tv? ○ Studies generally say yes; there’s really good evidence

○ Usually they are mimicking superheroes

● Doesn’t show that it will lead to violence

Long-term Effects

● Very difficult to make long term judgements about this topic

● Research is good at answering small questions

Music​ ​Documentary

● 85% of all records fail

● As baby boomers got older, they bought less music

○ Vinyls are replaced by CD’s

● CD’s seems great for industry but didn’t help sell newer artists

● Hip hop originally would not get radio play or bought by big record companies ● Russell Simmons made his money off of hip hop artists before they were mainstream

Baptiste 8

● Sales went down when the internet became popular and people were able to download songs for free

○ Businesses only cared about the single and wouldn’t put in work to make the rest of the album good

3 Possible Test Questions:

1. The influence of CD’s on the industry

a. Changed the way corporations counted success

b. Provided enormous boom

2. Stores like Walmart and Target were gatekeepers

a. Decreasing roles as digital options were created

3. Influence of ownership of the radio stations on gatekeepers

a. Ownership laws changed in the 90s

b. A company can own hundreds of radio stations and centralization is an effect i. One person can decide what music will make 400+ radio stations

c. Decreases the number of gatekeepers in the industry

Guest​ ​Speaker​ ​#2

● In terms of media, take the job you can get; getting your foot in the door is important ● Find 3 or 4 talking points to say when doing PR for a crisis

● In PR, work for the right person

● “No comment” is a comment, and not a good one

6 Facts about Public Speaking

● Focus on the lead

○ The first 1-2 sentences; what you’re saying should be the most

important/interesting thought

● Evidence

○ Follow claims with supporting evidence

● Focus and Efficiency

○ Every sentence said should push in the direction of convincing the audience ● Don’t read from a script

● Eye contact

○ Look at the lens from time to time

○ Don’t stare for too long

● Think about nonverbal communication

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