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KSU / Engineering / PSY 31532 / 4 types of social influence are?

4 types of social influence are?

4 types of social influence are?

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Study Guide for Exam 3


4 types of social influence are?



Social Psychology

Ch.8 Conformity

4 types of social influence

1. Persuasion

2. Conformity

3. Compliance

4. Obedience

Conformity: A change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people

Informational Social Influence: The influence of other people that leads us to conform because  we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior

• We believe that others' interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than  ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action

• When situations are ambiguous, it’s not clear what we should do, we look to what other  people are doing assuming they know what the best course of action is

• Muzafer Sherif (1936) examining visual perception.  

o Had participants in a dark room with a small point of light projected on the wall;  the point on the wall did not move but visual illusions make it seem like it's  moving


Conformity is what?



o Result: Participant estimates conform when they are in the room together and  sharing answers out loud

Private acceptance: Conforming to other people's behavior out of a genuine belief that what  they are doing and saying is right We also discuss several other topics like psy 205 exam 3
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Public compliance: Conforming to other people's behavior publicly without necessarily  believing in what we are doing or saying

Informational social influence often results in private acceptance 

When do we conform to informational social influence? 

• When the situation is ambiguous

• When the situation is a crisis

• When other people are experts

Normative social behavior

Social Norms: The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values,and  beliefs of its members

Normative Social Influence: Going along with what other people do in order to be liked and  accepted by them; we publicly conform with the group's beliefs and behaviors but do not  always privately accept them


Who is Muzafer Sherif?



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Asch's Line Judgement Study (1951) tested if people will conform despite correct answer being  obvious

• Participants guess which line is equal the line in another box.

• Guessed right when alone, but conform when others are present

• When a person had an "ally" conformity dropped 6%

• Collectivistic cultures view conformity as a valued trait rather than a somewhat negative  one

• FMRI shows: when participants conformed to group; vision and perception areas active  in brain. When participants disagreed, different brain areas active; amygdala: negative  emotions, right caudate nucleus: modulating social behavior We also discuss several other topics like educ3701

Social Impact Theory: The idea that conforming to social influence depends on the group's  importance (strength), immediacy (closeness in time and space), and the number of people in  the group

Minority Influence: the case where a minority of group members influence the behavior or  beliefs of the majority; consistency is key: people with minority views must express the same  view over time

Idiosyncrasy Credits: The tolerance a person earns, over time, by conforming to group norms; if  enough credits are earned, the person can, on occasion, deviate from the group without  retribution

Compliance: Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests

• Sequential Request Strategies

o Lowballing: Salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a  very low cost; claims it was an error and raises price

o Foot-in-the-door technique: Getting people to agree first to a small request  makes them more likely to agree later to a second, larger request

o Door-in–the-face technique: First asking people for a large request that they will  probably refuse makes them more likely to agree on a second, smaller request

Obedience 

Milgram's study (1963)

• 2 roles: teacher and learner; Experimenter instructed to administer shock at increasing  intensity when learner provides incorrect answers

o Average shock was given 360 volts; 62.5% gave the highest shock of 450 volts CH.9 Group Process: Influence in Social Groups

Group: Two or more people who interact and are independent in the sense that their needs  and goals cause them to influence each other Don't forget about the age old question of geol 2020 class notes

People join groups because 

1. Important source of information

2. Important aspect of identity

3. Establishment of social norms

Social Roles: Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to  behave

Group cohesiveness: Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking  between them

• The more cohesive a group is, the more its members are likely to  

o Stay in the group

o Take part in group activities

o Try to recruit new like-minded members

Group diversity: Research demonstrates that group members tend to be alike in age, sex,  beliefs and opinions

Social Facilitation: When people are in the presence of others and their individual performance  can be evaluated, the tendency to perform better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks We also discuss several other topics like how to pay for george washington university

• The presence of others increases physiological arousal (our bodies become more  energized)

• Possible explanation 

1. Other people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant

2. Other people make is apprehensive about how we're being evaluated 3. Other people distract us from the task at hand

Social Loafing: When people are in the presence of others and their individual performance  cannot be evaluated, the tendency to perform worse on simple or unimportant tasks but better  on complex or important tasks

• Becoming relaxed impairs performance on simple tasks but improves performance on  complex tasks

Deindividuation: The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be  identified (such as when they are in a crowd)

Process Loss: Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving

Groupthink: A kind of decision process in which maintaining group cohesiveness and  solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner

Most likely to occur when the group is: 

a. Highly cohesive

b. Isolated from contrary opinions

c. Ruled by a directive leader who makes his/her wishes known

Group Polarization: The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme  than the initial inclinations of their members

2 explanations for this process 

a. Persuasive arguments interpretation: Individuals bring to the group a set of  arguments, some of which other individuals have not considered

b. Social comparison interpretation: When people discuss an issue in the group,  they first explore how everyone else feels

Styles of Leadership

Transactional Leader: Leaders who set clear, short-term goals and rewards people who meet  them

Transformational Leader: Leaders who inspire follower to focus on common, long-term goals

Task-Oriented Leaders: concerned more with getting the job done than with workers' feelings  and relationships

Relationship-Oriented Leader: concerned more with workers' feelings and relationships Ch.11 Prosocial Behavior

Prosocial behavior: An act performed with the goal of benefiting another person Altruism: The desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes

Charles Darwin (1859) Theory of evolution, natural selection favors genes that promote the  survival of the individual. Any gene that furthers our survival and increases the possibility that  we will produce offspring is likely to be passed on from generation to generation.

Evolutionary psychology: the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that  have evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection

Kin selection: The idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural  selection

• According to evolutionary theory, kin selection may have become ingrained in human  behavior, and as a result the genes of people who help their relatives are more likely to  survive than the genes of people who do not

Norm of Reciprocity: The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they  will help us in the future

Social Exchange

Social exchange theory argues that much of what we do stems from the desire to maximize our  rewards and minimize our costs

• Assume that just as people in an economic marketplace try to maximize the ratio of  their monetary profits to their monetary losses, people in their relationships with others  try to maximize the social ratio of social rewards to social costs

• People help when the benefits outweigh the costs

Empathy and Altruism

C. Daniel Batson (1991)

Pure altruism comes into play when we feel empathy for the person in need of help, putting  ourselves in the shoes of another person and experiencing events and emotions the way that  person experiences them 

Batson's empathy-altruism hypothesis: When we feel empathy for another person, we will  attempt to help that person for purely altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain

3 basic motives underlying prosocial behavior:

1. Helping is an instinctive reaction to promote the welfare of those genetically similar to  us (evolutionary psychology)

2. The rewards of helping often outweigh the costs, so helping is in out self-interest (social  exchange theory)

3. Under some conditions, powerful feelings of empathy and compassion for the victim  prompt selfless giving (the empathy-altruism hypothesis)

Individual differences

Altruistic personality: The qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of  situations

Gender differences

Males are more inclined to be chivalrous and heroic; Females are expected to be nurturing and  caring and to value close, long-term relationships

Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behavior

Urban Overload Hypothesis: The theory that people living in cities are constantly bombarded  with stimulation, and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it

Bystander Effect: The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an  emergency, the less likely ant of them is to help

Pluralistic Ignorance: The case in which people think that everyone else is interpreting a  situation in a certain way, when in fact they are not

Effects of Media

We usually think of the negative influences, such as whether violence on television or playing or  playing violent video games make people more aggressive.

But the opposite can occur as well

How to increase prosocial behavior

• Increasing the likelihood that Bystanders Will Intervene: simply being aware of the  barriers to helping in an emergency can increase people's chances of overcoming those  barriers

• Increasing Volunteerism

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