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BYU - PHY S 100 - Class Notes - Week 11

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Class Notes - Week 11

School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Spectroscopy, Mixtures, structure of atoms, and Chemistry
Name: Chapter 19, Week 11 Notes
Description: atomic, molecular, and network structures; spectroscopy; pure substances and mixtures
Uploaded: 11/06/2017
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background image Chapter 19: Atoms, Molecules, and Extended-Bonding 
Substances
   
Classifications of Matter: Pure Substances and Mixtures 
   Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds  •  A pure substance: chemical matter that has a defined, fixed chemical composition; made up of 
repeating building block 
•  Elements: substance made entirely of the same kind of atom (same number of protons in nucleus)  •  Compounds: matter that contains two or more atoms in a fixed, definite proportion  Ex: Water! Two hydrogen and one oxygen     Mixtures: Blends/Composites, Solutions and Alloys  •  Mixtures: substances physically mixed together (little chemical bonding involved)   We see mixtures in nature more than we see pure substances  If it's a mixture of solids, we call it a blend or a composite  ▪  Ex: salt and pepper in a bowl  Solutions: mixtures of pure substances, one of which is a liquid that completely dissolves the 
other components 
Alloys: a solid solution of metals  ▪  Ex: wedding rings--often mostly gold, mixed with silver, copper, and zinc    
  
  
  
Structural Organization of Matter  *Types of pure substances: atomic matter, molecular matter, and network/extended-bonding 
substances* (divided by atomic-level organization) 
  
Atomic Matter  •  Group 8A of Periodic Table: elements exist as simple atoms (full electron shell--8)  •  This group exists naturally as atomic matter     Molecular Matter  •  Substances that keep molecules regardless of what state they're in  Ex: Water! (Again) Water is made up of two hydrogen and one oxygen--that's true for water 
molecules if it's in a solid, liquid, or gas form  
   Network Matter  •  Atoms/ions interact strongly with neighboring atoms to form a continuous linked network (not a 1 
to 1 atom bonding relationship) 
  
  
background image   
  
Chemical Bonds  •  From lowest to highest melting/boiling temperatures: atomic matter, molecular matter, network 
matter 
•  Chemical bond: attractive force keeping atoms within a molecule together AND force keeping 
atoms together in network solids  
Covalent: holds molecules together  Metallic and ionic: hold networks together    
  
  
  
Chemical Formulas and Structures  •  Chemical formula: atomic symbols for elements in a line   Ex: hydrogen peroxide= H 2 O 2   •  Diatomic molecules: molecules that have two atoms of the same kind (dihydrogen….)     Molecular Structure  •  Method of showing structure: balls show atoms and sticks show connectivity (what the bond looks 
like between atoms) 
Can have double and triple bonds between atoms, shown by two or three sticks  •  Families of Molecules  Carbon atoms make a total of four bonds  Nitrogen atoms make a total of three bonds  Oxygen: 2 bonds  Hydrogen: 1 bond  Hydrocarbon family: molecules made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only   Organic acids: molecules that have CO 2 H as part of it  Amine group: NH 2  attached to a carbon atom  •  Geometry of Molecules  Depending on the bonds made, you'll get a different shape per molecule  ▪  Ex: carbon makes a pyramid (tetrahedron) shape when it bonds to four other atoms, a 
planar shape when bonds with three, and linear shape when bonds to two  
Bond formation: atoms share a pair of electrons per bond     Extended-bonding Substances  •  Crystals: a solid with a repeating arrangement of molecules or ions; a large pattern of molecules 
bonded in solid state 
  
  
  
  
Examining Structure  *Spectroscopy: techniques used to identify elements that make up molecules, examine how they bond 
together, and measure the energy of the bonds. * 

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Spectroscopy, Mixtures, structure of atoms, and Chemistry
Name: Chapter 19, Week 11 Notes
Description: atomic, molecular, and network structures; spectroscopy; pure substances and mixtures
Uploaded: 11/06/2017
3 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
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