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BYU - PHY S 100 - Chapter 20, Week 11 Notes - Class Notes

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BYU - PHY S 100 - Chapter 20, Week 11 Notes - Class Notes

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background image Chapter 20: Principles of Chemical Reactivity   •  Noble gases: far right family on the Periodic Table, exist as individual atoms (tend not to 
react/form chemical compounds) 
•  Rates of chemical reactions vary widely    
  
Brief Introduction to Chemical Bonding  •  Individual atoms have their own electron orbitals. But what happens when two nuclei are brought 
close together? Molecular orbitals occur--standing wave shapes different from those of individual 
atoms because of multiple atomic nuclei.  
•  Bonding atoms occur because electrons are at a lower energy arrangement in the molecular 
orbitals than in the atomic orbitals when they were separate.  
•  Molecular orbitals don't follow the same pattern as atomic orbitals  •  Bonding molecular orbitals: molecules that have a high electron probability between two nuclei, 
holding the molecule together snuggly.  
•  Anti-bonding molecular orbitals: no electron probability between nuclei    
  
Predicting Chemical Bonding  •  Chemical bond forms based on (1) energy and (2) entropy.   (1) If two materials can achieve a lower energy state, then they will react. Extra energy will 
be emitted as light or heat. If energy is needed to react two materials, energy must come 
from surroundings or else nothing will happen.  
(2) entropy will increase overall, even if reaction releases energy to occur.   •  Three ways to form bonds:  Metallic bonding: strong bond, large number of atoms share electrons collectively  Ionic bonding: two atoms bond--metal gives up electrons to non-metal atoms to gain low 
energy electron standing wave patterns 
i.  Cations: atoms losing their valence electrons (outershell electrons) to form low energy 
standing wave patterns 
ii.  Anions: gain electrons to achieve low energy standing wave patterns (become - 
charged) 
Covalent bonding: non-metals share electrons to reach low energy standing wave patterns    
  
Balancing Chemical Equations  •  Reactant + reactant --> product  •  Number of each kind of atom has to be the same on both sides of the equation    
  
Rates of Chemical Reactions  •  Reaction rate: how fast reactants disappear and how fast products appear  •  What determines the speed of a reaction?  Collisions--electron orbitals of atoms overlap (collision rate depends on density of reactant 
molecules and the temperature) 

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: chemicalreactions, entropy, reactionrates, and chemicalbonds
Name: Chapter 20, Week 11 Notes
Description: Principles of Chemical Reactivity, including catalysts, entropy and energy, reaction rates, and types of chemical bonds
Uploaded: 11/06/2017
2 Pages 15 Views 12 Unlocks
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