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BYU-I - BIO 264 - Class Notes - Week 9

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BYU-I - BIO 264 - Class Notes - Week 9

School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Lanning Baker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: bio264, anatomy, Physiology, notes, and movements
Name: module 9 notes
Description: Module 9 notes Anatomy & Physiology I
Uploaded: 11/10/2017
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background image      BIO 264 – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I    Module 8: CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENTS  MAIN IDEAS:    During muscular movement, signal is sent to the brain neural pathways and back to the muscle to 
activate movement. 
Muscle spindle – specialized proprioceptors that monitor muscle length. 
Intrafusal fibers – modified skeletal fibers with extensive sensory & motor innervation. 
Extrafusal fibers – contractile skeletal muscle fibers that make up the bulk of skeletal muscle. 
Stretch receptor is comprised of the muscle spindle.   During muscle stretch small processes arise from the CNS or PNS to the stretch receptor.   Neurons are directly connected to muscle fibers. 
Neurons allow signals or synapses to be sent to the brain.
  During body movement, neurons carry signals to the brain, after processing the information, the brain 
sends back the required response action through the pathways to the specified part of the body that 
needs to be acted upon, allowing it to make such movements. 
Movements can be either voluntary or involuntary   Voluntary control: includes voluntary movements, such as walking upright; rather complex,  involving multiple areas within the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS); they 
depend on upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). The cell bodies of 
upper motor neurons are found in the cerebral cortex, where planning, initiation, and 
coordination of movement occur. 
  Involuntary control: These ones are controlled by the brain and here,  we do not actually have  control over any of the actions that take place.   Reflexes are the mechanisms whereby the body is able to sense changes and respond appropriately in 
order to maintain homeostasis. 
Components of a reflex includes   1.  Receptor (signal receivers); different types are:  a.  Mechanoreceptors  – a sensory receptor that  responds to mechanical pressure  or  distortion. Touch, pressure, stretching, sound waves, and motion can all activate 
mechanoreceptors. 
b.  Chemoreceptor  –  detects certain chemical stimuli  in the environment. E.g. those found  in the carotid artery–sensitive to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood.  c.  Thermoreceptors  – a specialized nerve cells that are able to  detect differences in  temperature.    d.  Photoreceptors  – cells in the retina that  respond to light ; convert light into signals.  e.  Nociceptors  – sensory receptors that  detect signals from damaged tissue or threat of  damage ; also  respond to chemicals released from the damaged tissue  by sending  signals to the spinal cord and brain. They conduct signals we perceive as pain.  2.  An afferent or sensory neuron that relays information 

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Lanning Baker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: bio264, anatomy, Physiology, notes, and movements
Name: module 9 notes
Description: Module 9 notes Anatomy & Physiology I
Uploaded: 11/10/2017
2 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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