FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
The Art of Crusading (HAA 233/HST 211/CTH 294)
Identifications (30 points total, 3 points each; .5 points per field of id and 1.5 points for significance) Below are 20 works of art and architecture that we have discussed in class (or will have discussed in class by our exam date). Of these, 10 will appear on the final. You will be expected to give the name/title, location (if known), and date for each work shown and to name one thing that we determined in this class to be especially significant about it. You will have about 15 minutes for this section (90 seconds per work).
Information in italics has been supplied for your information only. You can round dates to their century or to their year hundred (i.e. 1120 work be the 12th c. or 1100s). If a range of dates is given, pick a century or year hundred within that range. Corresponding images have been placed in a PowerPoint for you.
*Pages from the Folda text have been provided where relevant. The whole of Folda should be read, of course, in order to situate these short descriptions within a larger discussion. The pages provided are the pages that treat a given monument or object most thoroughly; there are sometimes additional mentions of the monument or object within Folda’s text. Remember too that the monuments and objects have also been treated in other course readings.
Great Mosque of Damascus, Damascus, Syria, 706715 (aerial view, exterior mosaic) “Morgan Casket,” ivory, c. 11th c.
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, 532537
Icon of St. Nicholas, late 10thearly 11th c.
Cathedral of Ani, Ani, Turkey, 9801001 (plan, exterior)
Church of Mar Saba (or St. Sabbas, if that's easier), Édde, Lebanon, 12th c. We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of mitosis?
Church of Mar Musa (or St. Moses, if that's easier), (near) Nabk, Lebanon, 11th and 12th c. (Folda, 49)* Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, dedicated 1149 (plan, entrance) (Folda, 38, 3945) Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687692
Presentation in the Temple, Riccardiana Psalter, c. 1235 (Folda, 91)
“Baltimore” Beaker, glass with gilding and enamel, c. 1260 (Folda, 13537)
“Freer” Canteen, brass with silver inlay, c. 1250 (Folda, 13537)
Anastasis, Psalter of Melisende, c. 1135 (Folda, 3236)
Book Covers, ivory, Psalter of Melisende, c. 1135 (Folda, 3436)
Tomb of the Virgin (technically, Abbey of St. Mary of the Valley of Jehosphaphat), Jerusalem, c. 1130 (Folda, 47)
Tomb of Melisende, Jerusalem, c. 1161 (Folda, 47, 49)
Ascension, Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, 12th c. (Folda, 3941, 44)
Chastel Blanc (or the While Tower, if that's easier), (near) Tortosa, Syria, early 12th c. Belvoir, Israel, late 12th c. and 13th c. (plan, aerial view) (Folda, 58) If you want to learn more check out What are the different types of liability?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the assumptions of appreciative inquiry?
Krak (or Crac) des Chevaliers, Syria, 12th13th c. (plan, view of whole) (Folda, 58, 79) Church of the Resurrection, Abu Ghosh, Israel, c. 1140 (plan, interior)
Crucifixion, Church of the Resurrection, Abu Ghosh, Israel, c. 1170
Cathedral of Our Lady, Tortosa, Syria, middle of the 12th c. to 13th c. (Folda, 4749, 80) Ampulla, lead, Acre, 13th c.
Church of St. Anne, Jerusalem, c. 1140 (plan, exterior) (Folda, 3637) If you want to learn more check out Why is energy balance important?
Solomon, Arsenal Bible, 12501254 (Folda, 1067, 1089))
Lintel, Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem, c. 1149 (Folda, 42, 44)
Icon of St. George and the boy of Mytilene, icon, Lydda?, second half of 13th c. (Folda, 59, 122)
Multiple Choice (10 points)
The exam will also include 10 multiplechoice questions, which will be based on lectures, texts, and works of art and architecture covered in this class. You will have about 10 minutes for this section.
Two short essays (20 points; 10 points each)
There will be two short essays on the exam, for which you will have 10 minutes each. In this section of the exam, you will be asked to compare works of art and architecture that reveal customs and concerns of the historical period to which they belong. The images on the accompanying PowerPoint are the images you will see on exam day. Feel free to discuss aspects of objects or buildings not pictured.
Below are 4 possible short essays. Of these, 3 will appear on the final. You will write on 2 of them.
1. After fully identifying these two works (name/title, location [if known], and date), compare and contrast them, thinking especially about their patrons/owners, object type, and the presumed function of their imagery. (Melisende Psalter book cover and the Baltimore beaker) If you want to learn more check out Why is scale important in ecology?
2. After identifying these two structures (name/title, location [if known], and date), compare and contrast their function and the ways in which the environment within which they were built has affected their form. (Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Church of St. Anne)
3. After identifying these two structures (name/title, location [if known], and date), compare and contrast them in terms of patronage, design, function, and the populations with which they were concerned. (Belvoir and the Church of the Resurrection)
4. After identifying these two works (name/title, location [if known], and date), compare and contrast them in terms of object type, decoration, and the devotional traditions to which they belong. (Icon of St. George and pilgrimage ampulla)
One long essay (40 points)
There will be one long essay on the exam, for which you will have 30 minutes. In this section, you will be given a statement and asked to argue for or against it. This statement gets at major themes that have occupied us directly and indirectly over the last five weeks. In articulating your position, you should make use of at least 3 objects or monuments discussed in class and at least 2 readings discussed in class. The strongest essays will acknowledge the opposing position (or opposing positions). Don't forget about the age old question of How does environmental health begin?
Below are 3 possible long essays. Of these, 2 will appear on the final. To help you write a more compelling exam essay, you may bring in a 5x7 index card (or equivalently sized sheet of paper) with notes regarding specific objects and monuments, specific readings, and lecture content (you may use both sides of the card/sheet of paper). Be prepared to turn this sheet of paper in with your exam.
1. Argue in support of the claim that art and architecture play an important role in the Crusader/Frankish conquest and continuing control of the eastern Mediterranean.
2. Argue for the claim that the culture of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem is not simply a western, European culture that has been transplanted in the East.
3. Argue for or against the claim that the Military Orders were the most important players in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.