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Tulane - BIOL 1010 - Class Notes - Week 11

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Tulane - BIOL 1010 - Class Notes - Week 11

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background image 11/7/17 Lecture Notes – Chapter 8 and 6 Anaerobic Respiration In the absence of oxygen, glycolysis and the electron transport chain can give ATP Instead of oxygen, compounds like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide can be 
the recipients of the de-energized electron
Nitrate-oxidizing bacteria
1. 
Electron transport chain is present along plasma membrane
a. In eukaryotic cells undergoing aerobic respiration, the ETC is in the  Inner Mitochondrial Membrane 2. Proton gradient present between the cell wall and plasma membrane a. In eukaryotic cells undergoing aerobic respiration, the proton gradient  is in the Inter Membrane Space The first common factor between eukaryotic and prokaryotic ETC is the 
presence of the protein and proton pump NADH dehydrogenase
1. This makes sense because both proks and euks oxidize NADH
The carrier ubiquinone is present in both proks and euks to carry the de-
energized electron
1. In euks, ubiquinone is not a proton pump, but ubiquinone is a proton 
pump in proks Cytochrome b is not a proton pump, just a protein in proks Nitrate reductase is next, and still not a pump; it simply reduces nitrate to 
nitrite and forms water
Summary: Proks have two pumps in their electron transport chain, one being 
the carrier ubiquinone
ATP Synthase protein is identical in both proks and euks In bacteria, ATP is produced in the cytoplasm Fermentation Remember from the chart a couple lectures ago, in fermentation, the electron is not 
de-energized, and an organic molecule accepts the electron
background image When we work out and lactic acid is produced, the supply of oxygen to the muscle is
much less than the demand, because all the energy from glucose in our blood is 
being burned up
Pyruvate is formed as a result of glycolysis, and accepts the hydrogen from 
NADH to form lactic acid thanks to the enzyme lactic acid dehydrogenase
The product of fermentation in the muscle is lactic acid and NAD + If we have potatoes in a barrel, drop in some yeast, and close the barrel so it is 
airtight (no oxygen), the yeast will undergo glycolysis with all the sugar from the 
potatoes and create ethanol
Through glycolysis, pyruvate is formed again, but in the case of yeast, it 
released a CO
2  and forms acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde oxidizes NADH and creates ethanol The product of fermentation in yeast is ethanol and NAD + The common biproduct of fermentation in both muscles and yeast is NAD + The purpose of fermentation is to recycle the coenzyme NAD     +  and to lower  concentrations of NADH If NAD isn’t recycled, there can be no energy liberation phase in glycolysis NADH in high concentrations can create free radicals; compounds with one 
free electron that has the capacity to rob an electron from balanced 
molecules, generating more free radicals
The NADH used in fermentation was not sent through the electron transport chain, 
and therefore it is never de-energized during fermentation
Fermentation has no net oxidation- nothing is lost in this process Glycolysis couples with fermentation when there is not enough oxygen Fermentation never gives you ATP Secondary Metabolism

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School: Tulane University
Department: Biology
Course: Intro to Cell & Molec Biology
Professor: Meenakshi Vijayaraghavan
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anaerobic, Respiration, fermentation, Secondary, metabolism, cellcell, Cell, communication, extracellular, and Matrix
Name: 11/7/17 Lecture Notes – Chapter 8 and 6
Description: Dr. V goes over anaerobic respiration, fermentation, secondary metabolism, finishing up chapter 8. She also begins chapter 6 with an introduction to cell-cell communication and the extracellular matrix.
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
5 Pages 45 Views 36 Unlocks
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