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CSU - BZ 330 - Mammalogy Midterm 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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CSU - BZ 330 - Mammalogy Midterm 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Identify ​ ​each​ ​important​ ​order​ ​(animals​ ​in​ ​that  order ​ ​that​ ​are​ ​important)  – 
​ ​their​ ​distinguishing​ ​characteristics-  including 
​ ​structures  • 
​ ​when​ ​they​ ​lived  • 
​ ​evolutionary​ ​history   
Order  Chiroptera  Suborder  Yinpterochioptera  Superfamily  Pteropodidae  Family  Rhinolophoidea  Suborder  Yangochiroptera  Animals:   -Bats  Special  Structures:  -Forelimb ​ ​is​ ​modified​ ​for​ ​flight​ ​​(See​ ​14.2)  -Wing ​ ​membrane​ ​is​ ​supported​ ​by​ ​elongated​ ​metacarpals​ ​and​ ​digits​ ​2-5  -Flight ​ ​membranes​ ​are​ ​higly​ ​elastic​ ​and​ ​fast​ ​healing.   -Sternum ​ ​keeled​ ​for​ ​muscle​ ​attachment  -Clavicle ​ ​present  -Pelvic ​ ​girdle​ ​is​ ​rotated​ ​around​ ​so​ ​they​ ​can​ ​hang​ ​and​ ​grab​ ​​(See​ ​14.11)  -large ​ ​claws   -Most ​ ​have​ ​a​ ​uropatagium:​ ​membrane​ ​between​ ​the​ ​thigh​ ​and​ ​tail  -hind ​ ​limbs​ ​are​ ​small​ ​and​ ​knee​ ​is​ ​directed​ ​outward​ ​and​ ​backward  -bats ​ ​are​ ​“slow”​ ​fluttering​ ​fliers​ ​and​ ​can​ ​hover​ ​especially​ ​fruit​ ​bats  -Tragus: ​ ​inner​ ​part​ ​of​ ​ear  -lots ​ ​of​ ​different​ ​ear​ ​shapes   -flesh ​ ​on​ ​the​ ​inside​ ​ear​ ​of​ ​the​ ​bat.​ ​We​ ​don’t​ ​know​ ​what​ ​they​ ​are​ ​for.​ ​There​ ​is​ ​a  belief ​ ​that​ ​they​ ​funnel​ ​the​ ​sounds​ ​of​ ​echolocation​ ​into​ ​the​ ​ear.   -Bats ​ ​have​ ​lots​ ​of​ ​different​ ​noses  -Theres ​ ​noseleaf​ ​and​ ​tubular​ ​types​ ​of​ ​nostrils   Echolocation  -See ​ ​Figures​ ​14.7-14.8  -Flight ​ ​came​ ​first,​ ​the​ ​earliest​ ​bats​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Eocene​ ​did​ ​not​ ​have​ ​echolocation  -conversion ​ ​characteristic​ ​of​ ​the​ ​​mycoropteroums   -Bat ​ ​sends​ ​out​ ​a​ ​signal,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​bounces​ ​off​ ​of​ ​a​ ​moth​ ​and​ ​comes​ ​back​ ​towards​ ​the​ ​bat  -Animal ​ ​relies​ ​on​ ​a​ ​small,​ ​localized​ ​beam. 
background image -Each ​ ​ear​ ​is​ ​used​ ​at​ ​different​ ​times  -The ​ ​difference​ ​in​ ​time​ ​allows​ ​the​ ​animal​ ​to​ ​figure​ ​out​ ​the​ ​time​ ​and​ ​direction   -Emit ​ ​high​ ​frequency​ ​sound​ ​14,000​ ​to​ ​over​ ​100,000​ ​hz.​ ​Beyond​ ​human​ ​hearing  -Enlarged ​ ​cochlea​ ​region  -Can ​ ​detect​ ​shape​ ​size,​ ​movement,​ ​texture​ ​and​ ​distance​ ​of​ ​an​ ​object,​ ​even​ ​if​ ​it​ ​is​ ​as​ ​small​ ​as  .06mm  -The ​ ​higher​ ​the​ ​frequency,​ ​the​ ​shorter​ ​the​ ​wavelength.​ ​Allows​ ​you​ ​to​ ​discern​ ​smaller  objects  
​ ​Constant​ ​frequency​ ​is​ ​a​ ​signal​ ​used​ ​when​ ​cruising​ ​in​ ​open​ ​areas.​ ​Means​ ​they​ ​are​ ​not  changing ​ ​the​ ​frequency  FM: ​ ​Frequency​ ​Modulation​ ​is​ ​used​ ​when​ ​honing​ ​in​ ​on​ ​a​ ​prey​ ​and/or​ ​in​ ​a​ ​​ ​close​ ​cluttered  environment. ​ ​Duration​ ​of​ ​call​ ​decreases   -Distance ​ ​to​ ​the​ ​target​ ​must​ ​be​ ​close​ ​in​ ​order​ ​for​ ​them​ ​to​ ​get​ ​a​ ​return​ ​signal​ ​of​ ​the  targeted ​ ​object.   -Why ​ ​don’t​ ​bats​ ​go​ ​deaf?​ ​They​ ​disarticulate​ ​ear​ ​bones​ ​to​ ​reduce​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​sound​ ​coming​ ​in  the ​ ​ear  -Toothed ​ ​whales​ ​echolocate  -Shrews ​ ​and​ ​Tenrecs​ ​produce​ ​ultrasonic​ ​sounds​ ​that​ ​appear​ ​to​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to​ ​investigate​ ​their  habitat 
​ ​Yinpterochioptera  Superfamily ​ ​Pteropodidea​ ​:​ ​Flying​ ​Foxes  -Ethiopia, ​ ​Middle​ ​EAst,​ ​Oriental,​ ​Australia,​ ​and​ ​Cook​ ​Islands  Morphology  -5-1600gms 
​ ​meter​ ​wing​ ​span  -nocturnal 
​ ​Roussettius​ ​echolocates​ ​and​ ​the​ ​others​ ​use​ ​vision  -no ​ ​nose​ ​or​ ​facial​ ​ornaments  -simple ​ ​pinna  -low ​ ​reproductive​ ​rate  -gestation ​ ​100-125​ ​days  -frugivores ​ ​and​ ​nectarivores:​ ​act​ ​as​ ​pollinators​ ​and​ ​seed​ ​dispersers  -Canines ​ ​and​ ​teeth​ ​specialized​ ​for​ ​fruit​ ​diet  -don’t ​ ​hibernate​ ​and​ ​roost​ ​communally  Suborder ​ ​Yangochiropterans  See ​ ​figures​ ​14.5-14.8​ ​and​ ​13.10B  -Echolocate ​ ​via​ ​ultrasonic​ ​sounds​ ​produced​ ​in​ ​larynx​ ​and​ ​emitted​ ​through​ ​nose​ ​or​ ​mouth  -allows ​ ​bats​ ​to​ ​fill​ ​a​ ​night​ ​niche​ ​and​ ​compete​ ​with​ ​birds  -hibernate ​ ​and​ ​heterothermic:​ ​Have​ ​characteristics​ ​of​ ​poikilothermy​ ​and​ ​homeothermy   -Complex ​ ​pinna​ ​and​ ​tragus​ ​or​ ​antitragus​ ​present 
background image -nose ​ ​or​ ​facial​ ​ornaments​ ​present  -second ​ ​digit​ ​of​ ​wing​ ​without​ ​claw,​ ​completely​ ​enclosed​ ​in​ ​wing​ ​membrane  When  they lived:   -Eocene ​ ​period  Evolutionary  History:   -Fossils ​ ​found​ ​on​ ​every​ ​continent​ ​except​ ​Antarctica  -Most ​ ​likely​ ​evolved​ ​from​ ​arboreal,​ ​shrew-like​ ​insectivores​ ​but​ ​the​ ​time​ ​of​ ​divergence​ ​is  unknown  -Monophyletic 
​ ​of​ ​bats​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Eocene​ ​suggest​ ​bats​ ​could​ ​fly​ ​and​ ​had​ ​echolocation  -Flight ​ ​came​ ​first  Colorado  Families  Superorder  Yangochiropterans  Vespertilionidae 
​ ​lucifugus:​ ​little​ ​brown​ ​bat  Molossidae: ​ ​Free-tailed​ ​bats  Nyctinomops ​ ​macrotis:​ ​Big​ ​Free-tailed​ ​bat  Habitat: ​ ​Roosts​ ​in​ ​rocky​ ​crevices.​ ​Migratory  Breeding: ​ ​breeding​ ​occurs​ ​in​ ​midwinter​ ​at​ ​warmer​ ​latitutdes.  -one ​ ​pup​ ​is​ ​born​ ​in​ ​mid-June​ ​to​ ​early​ ​July  -females ​ ​form​ ​small​ ​nursery​ ​colonies  -young ​ ​don’t​ ​leave​ ​till​ ​they​ ​are​ ​almost​ ​fully​ ​grown  Food: ​ ​Moths.  -bats ​ ​emerges​ ​late​ ​in​ ​the​ ​evening​ ​and​ ​forage​ ​at​ ​high​ ​altitudes  EConomic ​ ​and​ ​conservation​ ​issues  -many ​ ​species​ ​face​ ​extinction​ ​due​ ​to…  -over-harvesting ​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Pacific  -paralysis ​ ​tick​ ​affects​ ​the​ ​Spectacled​ ​Flying​ ​Fox  -White ​ ​Nose​ ​Syndrome​ ​is​ ​a​ ​fungus​ ​that​ ​dehydrates​ ​bats​ ​and​ ​cause​ ​them​ ​to​ ​die​ ​during  hibernation    Order  Lagomorpha  Family  Leporidae  Family  Ochotonidae  Animals:  
 Lagomorphs  American ​ ​Pika​ ​(​Ochotona   princeps Snowshoe ​ ​Hare​ ​(​Lepus   americanus Black-tailed ​ ​Jackrabbit​ ​(​Lepus   californicus White-tailed ​ ​Jackrabbit​ ​(​Lepus   townsendii )   Desert ​ ​Cottontail​ ​(​Sylvilagus   audubonii Mountain ​ ​Cottontail​ ​(​Sylvilagus   nuttallii
background image  
 Structures:  -4 ​ ​incisors​ ​in​ ​upper​ ​jaw​ ​(Rodents​ ​only​ ​have​ ​2)  -herbivorous  
​ ​scrotum​ ​i​ ​in​ ​front​ ​of​ ​th​ ​epenis​ ​and​ ​penis​ ​contains​ ​no​ ​bone  -Dental ​ ​formula:​ ​2/1,​ ​0/0,​ ​3/2,​ ​2-3/3​ ​=​ ​26-28​ ​teeth  -cheek ​ ​teeth​ ​and​ ​incisors​ ​are​ ​open-rooted​ ​and​ ​ever​ ​growing  Skull  -fenestrated 
​ ​plate  -incisors ​ ​covered​ ​in​ ​enamel  -diastema ​ ​separates​ ​incisors​ ​and​ ​first​ ​cheek​ ​tooth  -crowns ​ ​of​ ​cheek​ ​teeth​ ​have​ ​transverse​ ​basins​ ​separated​ ​by​ ​enamel​ ​ridges   -occlusion ​ ​happens​ ​on​ ​one​ ​side​ ​of​ ​the​ ​jaw​ ​at​ ​a​ ​time.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​upper​ ​tooth​ ​rows  being ​ ​more​ ​separated​ ​than​ ​the​ ​lower​ ​tooth​ ​rows  -masseter ​ ​is​ ​what​ ​gives​ ​power​ ​for​ ​mastication  -temporal ​ ​muscle​ ​is​ ​small   Habitat/Ecology: 
-small ​ ​animals  -live ​ ​in​ ​rocky​ ​out-crops  -store ​ ​hay​ ​piles​ ​for​ ​winter  Rabbits  -smaller 
​ ​ears​ ​and​ ​legs  -altricial ​ ​young  Hares  -bigger 
​ ​ears​ ​and​ ​legs  -precocial ​ ​young​ ​→​ ​born​ ​with​ ​fur​ ​and​ ​open​ ​eyes  Where  they lived:  -Late ​ ​Paleocene​ ​to​ ​early​ ​Eocene  -Northern ​ ​Hemisphere  Evolutionary  History:  -More ​ ​closely​ ​related​ ​to​ ​primates​ ​than​ ​rodents      Cetaceans  Infraorder  Cetacea  Parvorder  Mysticeti  Parvorder  Odontoceti     (also ​ ​calls​ ​the​ ​parvorder​ ​suborder​ ​in​ ​his​ ​slides​ ​so​ ​I​ ​don’t​ ​know​ ​which​ ​one​ ​he​ ​prefers) 
background image Animals:  
​ ​Mysticeti  Suborder ​ ​Odontoceti   
​ ​Whale  Distinctive ​ ​spermaceti​ ​organ:​ ​a​ ​spermaceti​ ​organ​ ​produces​ ​a​ ​waxy​ ​liquid​ ​called​ ​spermaceti​ ​that  helps ​ ​focus​ ​sound​ ​waves   -this ​ ​organ​ ​is​ ​up​ ​to​ ​10%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​whales​ ​mass  -composed ​ ​of​ ​case​ ​and​ ​junk​ ​(melon)  Figure ​ ​21.27   
​ ​develops​ ​into​ ​a​ ​3m​ ​long​ ​tusk  -develops ​ ​from​ ​a​ ​canine  -tusk ​ ​is​ ​in​ ​males​ ​only​ ​and​ ​is​ ​used​ ​for​ ​dominance   
​ ​Whales​ ​(Orcinus​ ​orca)  -can ​ ​live​ ​up​ ​to​ ​50​ ​years​ ​and​ ​weigh​ ​12,000lbs  -can ​ ​grow​ ​up​ ​to​ ​28​ ​ft  -gestation ​ ​perod​ ​15​ ​months   
​ ​vs.​ ​Porpoise  -dolphins ​ ​have​ ​a​ ​longer​ ​nose  -mouth ​ ​of​ ​the​ ​porpoise​ ​is​ ​smaller​ ​than​ ​that​ ​of​ ​the​ ​dolphin  -dolphin's ​ ​dorsal​ ​fin​ ​is​ ​also​ ​longer​ ​and​ ​more​ ​curved  Special  Structures:  Suborder ​ ​Mysticeti  - ​toothless​ ​wales  -symmetrical ​ ​skull   -paired ​ ​external​ ​nares  -don’t ​ ​use​ ​echolocation  -sternum ​ ​has​ ​1​ ​bone  -simple ​ ​nasal​ ​passages  Suborder ​ ​Odontoceti  -most ​ ​diverse​ ​suborder​ ​of​ ​Cetaceasn  -teeth ​ ​present​ ​and​ ​are​ ​monophyodont:​ ​teeth​ ​are​ ​not​ ​replaced​ ​at​ ​all  -dentition ​ ​is​ ​homodont:​ ​same​ ​shape  -asymmetrical ​ ​skull  -one ​ ​external​ ​nare  -echolocate 
​ ​has​ ​3​ ​or​ ​more​ ​bones  -glottis ​ ​and​ ​larynx​ ​separates​ ​the​ ​respiratory​ ​canal​ ​and​ ​food​ ​passages   

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Botany
Course: Mammalogy
Professor: Gregory Florent
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: mammalogy
Name: Mammalogy Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: Covers Bats, Rabbits, Whales, Carnivores, Ungulates, and Primates Missing Proboscidae, Hyracoidea, and Sirenia and reproduction and environmental adaptations. . (Sorry, I had to have it uploaded by midnight tonight and it has been a busy week) Communication is NOT on the exam Also don't forget to review the figures in your textbook, (highlighted in yellow) and to look over the lab manual.
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
25 Pages 54 Views 43 Unlocks
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