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BYU-I - BIO 264 - anatomy & physiology - Study Guide

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BYU-I - BIO 264 - anatomy & physiology - Study Guide

School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Lanning Baker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: anatomy & physiology
Description: anatomy & physiology midterm study guide.
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
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background image Page 1 of 4    MIDTERM 4 – STUDY GUIDE  Ideas       Important     Need to know    1.  Ideas about metabolism     Define it: The set of life sustaining transformations within the cells of living  organisms; all of the catabolic and anabolic processes that a cell is engaged in.    Types of reaction  a.  First, know bioenergetics – the study of how energy is transferred through the  chemical reactions of living systems.  b.  Anabolic reaction – whenever you see a reaction that involves the synthesis of new  molecules. Think about steroids.  c.  Catabolic reaction – when molecules are broken down into smaller and simpler  parts. 
o  What is required? 
Energy in form of ATP; the energy currency of the cell. 
 
2.  Understand the meanings of glycolysis, pyruvate, beta oxidation, lipogenesis, and ketoacidosis.  a.  Glycolysis - the breakdown of sugar (Glyc   sugar or sweet and Lysis   to cut or loosen); occurs in  the cytoplasm of the cell.  b.  Pyruvate is made when glycolysis takes 1 glucose molecule of 6 carbons and makes two 3  carbon molecules  c.  Beta oxidation – a series of reactions that break down a fatty acid into 2 carbon acetyl groups  which are associated with Coenzyme A. This generates NADH and FADH 2   d.  Lipogenesis is simply  the process of making new fat 
e.  Ketoacidosis – a complication that occurs when the body is not metabolizing sugar. Check for 
excessive dieting, fasting, or malnutrition. 
 
3.  More important things in metabolism – enzymes important in the process 
a.  ATP (Adenosine triphosphate 
ATP includes a nitrogenous base called adenine joined to a 5 carbon sugar called ribose and 
3 phosphate groups and is used to phosphorylate a protein. 
For everything in the body to work out well, the cells needs to use molecules of ATP as an 
energy source 
b.  NAD and FAD  i.  Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide A and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide A are coenzymes 
involved in reversible oxidation and reduction reactions; they are electron carriers 
because they accept electrons become reduced during catabolic steps in the breakdown 
of organic molecules such as carbohydrates and lipids. 
ii.  NAD+ and NADH differences 
NAD in its oxidized state is called NAD+ while NADH is NAD in a reduced state, i.e. after 
accepting electrons; derived from niacin. 
background image Page 2 of 4    iii.  FAD and FADH – differences 
Flavin adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized state is called FAD, while after being reduced 
is FADH
2- ; derived from riboflavin.    4.  Know the 10 steps of glycolysis and what it yields at the end.  i.  Glucose enters the cell and ATP is used to phosphorylate it.  ii.  The chemical structure of glucose rearrangement occurs  iii.  The hydroxyl group (OH) on carbon-1 of fructose 6-phosphate is phosphorylated by ATP.  iv.  The six-carbon sugar called fructose (phosphorylated twice) cleaves to produce two 3-
carbon molecules. 
v.  The other product from step 4 is called Dihydroxyacetone phosphate  vi.  The aldehyde group of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is dehydrogenated. The hydrogen 
with 2 electrons becomes part of NAD+ (becoming NADH).  A phosphate is bonded at 
the number 1 carbon to make 1,3 -bisphosphoglycerate. 
vii.  A high energy phosphate from carbon 1 is transferred to ADP to form ATP.  This is the 
first example of “substrate level phosphorylation”.   
viii.  The phosphate ester linkage at carbon 3 is removed and relocated at the number 2 
carbon. (Preparing for step ix). 
ix.  A water molecule is removed from 2phophoglycerate and as a result a double bond is 
formed between carbon 2 and 3.  This creates a higher energy phosphate linkage. 
x.  A phosphate group is transferred from the carbon 2 of phophenolpyrvate to ADP. 
  What is the end product? 
4 ATP (net gain = 2); 2 –NADH in this process; 2-pyruvate 
Citric acid cycle is also called the Krebs cycle. 
 
5.  Understand reflexes, mechanism of a reflex, classifications, and the component.  1.  Reflexes - mechanism whereby the body is able to sense changes and respond  appropriately in order to maintain homeostasis. 
a.  Classification of a reflex 
  Somatic: involving control of skeletal muscle 
  Autonomic: involving control of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands etc. 
b.  Components  o  A receptor (receives signal); includes mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors,  Thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, and nociceptors.  o  An afferent or sensory neuron that relays information. 
o  A control center: evaluates the incoming information and determines an 
appropriate response  o  An efferent or motor neuron: carries information away from the control center. 
o  An effector: where action is carried out. 
c.  Reflex arc – the above components forms this basic circuit.  6.  Know the types of reflexes.  A.  There are 4 major types of reflexes integrated within the spinal cord; they can also be  influenced or modified by higher brain centers (to elicit or inhibit) the response they 
produce. 

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Lanning Baker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: anatomy & physiology
Description: anatomy & physiology midterm study guide.
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
4 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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