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BYU - PHY S 100 - PS 100 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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BYU - PHY S 100 - PS 100 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Chemistry, radioactivity, covalentbonds, Metallic Bond, chemicalreactions, and Ionic Bond
Name: PS 100 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 18-25
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
0 5 3 36 Reviews
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background image PS 100 Exam 3 Study Guide     ____________________________________________________________________________   Chapter 18: The Law of Increasing Disorder    •  An irreversible process increases total entropy in the universe, but reversible processes  do not. Changes in natural systems always end up either leaving entropy of the universe  unchanged or increasing it.   •  Irreversible process: effects cannot be undone (most of natural processes) 
•  Reversible process: process goes forward and backward (ex: changing states of matter) 
•  Entropy: the amount of disorder in a system; randomness 
o  The higher the temperature, the more entropy (greater distribution of speeds)  •  Energy conversion  law of increasing disorder explains that some energy is lost to  heat in the process  ____________________________________________________________________________   Chapter 19: Atoms, Molecules, and Extended-Bonding Substances  •  Structural Organization of Matter:  o  Atomic matter: group 8A on Periodic Table; full valence shell so group exists  naturally by itself  o  Molecular matter: matter made out of building blocks of atoms  o  Network matter : “giant molecules” with atoms as the building blocks  •  Hydrogen bonding: oxygen hogs electrons between itself and hydrogen. O slightly  negative, H slightly positive. Hydrogen is then able to bond to other oxygen.   o  Strongest of weak bonds  ____________________________________________________________________________   Chapter 20: Principles of Chemical Reactivity  •  Individual atoms have their own electron orbitals. But what happens when two nuclei are  brought close together? Molecular orbitals occur--standing wave shapes different from  those of individual atoms because of multiple atomic nuclei.   •  Bonding atoms occur because electrons are at a lower energy arrangement in the  molecular orbitals than in the atomic orbitals when they were separate.   •  Molecular orbitals don't follow the same pattern as atomic orbitals 
background image o  Atoms separate have a lot of energy. Binding into molecular orbitals reduces  energy  •  When bonds form: energy is released into the environment, the molecule is more  ordered, and the universe is less ordered  •  Rate of Chemical Reactions  o  All require energy in order for process to start  o  Activation energy: energy required to get reactants to the transition state  o  Transition state: existing bonds between reactants break apart to be recombined  differently into products  •  Speeding up reactions:  o  Catalysts: speed up reactions without being consumed by lowering the activation  energy required to start a reaction  o  Increase heat/temperature  o  Increase concentration of molecules (more likely to collide and react)  ____________________________________________________________________________   Chapter 21: Bonding in Metals, Alloys, and Semiconductors  •  Metallic bonding:  o  Model: electrons in network solid move freely around several network nuclei  o  Characteristics:  ▪  High melting temperature: electron orbitals expand over many nuclei and  thus form a tight bond in metals. A lot of kinetic energy is required to pull  nuclei away from each other and change state of metal  ▪  Electrical conductivity: mobile electrons can move relatively easily in  metal to allow for current  ▪  Thermal conductivity: mobile electrons can also carry kinetic energy (heat  energy)  ▪  Malleability: electrons between packed nuclei reduce repulsive force  ▪  Opacity: metals can absorb radiation over entire visible light spectrum  because of infinite energy states and their close spacing  ▪  Reflectivity: electrons radiate light energy while absorbing light (causes  back and forth movement between energy levels)  o  Alloys, semiconductors     

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Chemistry, radioactivity, covalentbonds, Metallic Bond, chemicalreactions, and Ionic Bond
Name: PS 100 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 18-25
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
6 Pages 72 Views 57 Unlocks
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  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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