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AU - NTRI 2000 - NTRI 2000 Study Guide Exam 3 - Study Guide

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AU - NTRI 2000 - NTRI 2000 Study Guide Exam 3 - Study Guide

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background image 11/11/2017 OneNote Online… 1/19 Study Guide  Friday, November 10, 2017  1:16 PM  Intro to Proteins • Body is made up of thousands of proteins, many functions
• 4 kcal/g
• Recommended 10-35% of total kcal of protein
• Typical American diet is rich in protein
○ Focus on "meeting needs" is not necessary • Unlike carbs and lipids, proteins contain nitrogen (N) Amino acids Proteins are made of Amino Acids • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins
• 20 different amino acids make up all the proteins
○ 9 essential
○ 11 nonessential
• Composed of C, H, O, and N
• Basic structure:
○ Central C
○ Amino acid (N containing)
○ Acid group
○ Side chain ( R )
background image 11/11/2017 OneNote Online… 2/19 • Branch chain amino acid ○ R-group has a branched structure
○ 3 examples in the human diet
• Leucine
• Isoleucine
• Valine
○ Used to fuel muscle (energy) during activity
○ Whey protein (from milk) is a rich natural source of BCAAs
• Essential AA ○ Cannot be synthesized by humans in sufficient amounts or at all, must be included in the diet
○ Needs highest during infancy (40%) and decline during adulthood (11% of total protein intake)
○ Limiting AA
• Essential amino acid in lowest concentration in diet relative to body needs ○ Conditionally essential amino acid • Some nonessential AA are made from essential amino acids Protein Synthesis and Organization • Proteins are held together by Peptide Bonds ○ When AAs bond, proteins are formed
○ The bond between AAs is called peptide bond
○ Bonds form between Amino
○  Group of one amino acid and acid group of another
• Most proteins are polypeptides, 50-2000 groups ○ Acids, enzymes and other agents can break these bonds (ie: during digestion) • Protein Synthesis ○ DNA contains coded instructions for protein synthesis within the nucleus of the cell. However, protein synthesis tales place in the cytoplasm. ○ Transcription • The process from DNA is coded into mRNA • mRNA: transcribed segment of DNA ○ Translation • The process where ribosomes read the mRNA code to produce a specific protein • tRNA: takes Amino Acid code to ribosomes ○ Protein synthesis requires energy
○ Order of amino acids in a protein determines its ultimate shape
background image 11/11/2017 OneNote Online… 3/19 ○ Proteins final shape determines its function in the body • If the AA sequence is mutated, final shape is disrupted, causes disease • Protein mutation ○ Sickle cell anemia: illness that results from malformation of RBC because of an incorrect structure in part of its hemoglobin protein chains • One amino acid found in hemoglobin is changed (glutamic acid -> valine -> change in protein organization -> disease state • Protein Denaturation ○ Alteration of a protein's three dimensional structure; loses biological activity • Heat
• Enzymes
• Acid/alkaline solutions
• Agitations
○ Cooking
○ Digestion- breaks down protein to make AAs available
background image 11/11/2017 OneNote Online 4/19   Proteins in Food Dietary protein ○ High quality (complete) protein • Provide all essential AA
• Mostly animal sources
• Support body growth and maintenance
○ Lower quality (incomplete) protein • Low or lack or more essential AA
• Plant sources (except soy and quinoa)
• Limiting AAs- the EAA that is in the lowest quantity
○ All or none principle: either all essential AA are present or none can be used
○ Complementary protein
• 2 or more incomplete proteins may be combined to make a complete protein (ex. Rice and beans, mac n cheese, PBJ) • If not complemented, incomplete protein are used for energy needs or converted to CHO or fat • Animal Protein Source (complete) ○ Contribution to American diet • 70% of our protein intake

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School: Auburn University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Ramesh Jeganathan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Proteins, energybalance, and weightcontrol
Name: NTRI 2000 Study Guide Exam 3
Description: Study guide on lecture notes
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
25 Pages 65 Views 52 Unlocks
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