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GWU - PSYC 2013 - Study Guide - Midterm

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GWU - PSYC 2013 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: George Washington University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Peg Barratt
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: developmental psychology, developmental, Psychology, gwu, GWUpsych, gwupsyc, psyc2013, psych, PSYC, and 2013
Name: Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide (Barratt, GWU) (PSYC2013)
Description: Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide. Professor Barratt. GWU. Covers chapters 1 through 5. PSYC 2013.
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
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background image Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: ● Bronfenbrenner ○ Ecological systems approach
○ Systems within systems within systems

○ Macrosystem:
■ Cultural values
■ Economic system
■ Political system
○ Exo-system ■ Schools
■ Religious institutions
■ Infrastructure
■ Places of work
■ Hospitals, clinics, labs
■ Media
■ How much time spent working, how accessible is 
healthcare, etc. ○ Micro-system ■ Immediate, direct influences
■ Peers, teachers, doctors, day care workers, neighbors, 
religious leader, family, extended family ○ Meso-system ■ Interactions among people in the microsystem
■ E.g. parent-teacher conference
background image ● All kinds of humans ○ Culture: Beliefs  ■ e.g. “if we don’t treat bad behavior in child, he will grow to  be a delinquent” ○ Ethnicity: Heritage ■ Share religion, country, language, etc. ○ Race: ■ This is a social construct ○ Socioeconomic Status ■ Income, education, occupation ● Scientific Method ○ Curiosity
○ Hypothesis
○ Test
○ Analysis
○ Report
○ Research: have to vary (go to one type of museum vs. another, 
etc.) ○ Construct: concept you can try to measure (“museum going- ness”) ○ Operational Definition: e.g. How well are they doing in school?  Look at grades. ○ Measure: GPA, average in science, math, english grades, etc.  ● Kinds of studies: ○ Scientific Observation ■ Naturalistic Observation
■ Structured Observation
● Child’s response to mother leaving and returning  (separation vs. reunion) ○ Experiment ■ Independent Variable
■ Random Assignment
■ Dependent Variable
○ Survey ■ Data from many people ○ Developmental Studies: ■ Cross Sectional: groups of different ages (group 1 = 1-3  year olds, group 2 = 4-6 year olds, etc.) ■ Longitudinal: Follow individuals over time
■ Cross-sequential: Combination of both Cross Sectional and 
Longitudinal ● Who are we learning about? ○ Population: Group you want to learn about as a whole (e.g.  college students) ○ Sample: Smaller group taken from the overall population
background image ○ Random sample ● Cohort Effect: e.g. people who are 70 now are different from the people who will be 70 in the future. People who are 70 now did not grow up 
with the technology we have now, for example
● Survey: In a poll, how you ask the question matters and could affect  the results. For example, do you call it “global warming” or “climate 
change”?
● Case Study: Small number of individuals that you study in more detail ○ Happens at random but provides extensive insight into a specific  case ● Common Problems in Research Studies: ○ Experimenter Effects/Bias: Bias you have affects your subjects  (experimenter bias) and impacts the behavior of participants  ○ Confirmation Bias: Experimenter wants something to be true, so  they look for confirming data. This can impact data collection, 
analyses, and interpretation
○ Social Desirability: Subjects want to help researcher/give “right”  answers or want to look good ○ Characteristic of the participants
○ Selection Problem: Are those groups really similar? Groups are 
not the same, there is a bias with how the researcher selected 
the groups
○ Confound: IV co-varies with something else (e.g. amount of  museums you go to depends on whether you live in rural or 
developed area)
○ Confusion of correlation and causation: ■ Directionality
■ Third Variable Problem
■ Correlation does not prove causation
■ More or less, causation can be proven through an 
experiment in which a researcher controls a variable ○ Low statistical power/small sample: could have just been chance. Need a larger study to test the question ○ Sampling bias/over-generalization from sample ■ For example, volunteers: Is a certain type of person more  likely to volunteer for research than another? ■ For example, generalizing from one race to another
■ For example, college students
○ Unreliable Measure:  ■ Error: If you eyeball a measurement, it’s likely that there is  too much error involved ○ Invalid Measure: doesn’t really measure the construct, or what  you think it’s going to.

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School: George Washington University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Peg Barratt
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: developmental psychology, developmental, Psychology, gwu, GWUpsych, gwupsyc, psyc2013, psych, PSYC, and 2013
Name: Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide (Barratt, GWU) (PSYC2013)
Description: Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide. Professor Barratt. GWU. Covers chapters 1 through 5. PSYC 2013.
Uploaded: 11/11/2017
12 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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