Digital Mapping Quiz 2 - Study Guide (Part 1)
∙ Fracking aka Hydraulic Fracturing = rigorous process of mixing about 600 lethal chemicals and up to 7 million gallons of water to crack rock underground to release/ access natural gas for consumption.
o Natural Gas is a lucrative source that enable us to use our own gas (United States) instead of other foreign sources
o Fracking has been linked to water, land and air pollution
o 1972 – Richard Nixon signed the Clean Water Act to “prevent, monitor & penalize” industrial activity that would be harmful to US water supply
o 2005 – Dick Cheney and Congress passed an Energy Bill preventing the natural gas corporations from the Safe Drinking Water Act, Clean water, Super Fund and Clean Air Act.
o Halliburton Loophole – lack of accountability of these exemptions mentioned above
o Fracking started in the west and then moved to the south, this process is active in 34 states
o Fracking is detrimental to the environment and society
∙ Fracking Damages
o Water – up to 7 million gallons to enter the well then another 7 million to crack the rock THEN up to 7 million to RE-OPEN IT
40 TRILLION GALLONS OF WATER HAS BEEN USED ON ACCOUNT OF HYDRAULIC
FRACTURING … one of the major reasons why
the water supply is declining
Fracking has heavily contaminated water
o In the movie, Gasland, Fox traveled to many locations where he witnessed the effects of fracking sites on local’s health – reports of headaches,
We also discuss several other topics like How does increasing temperature increase the reaction rate?
fatigue, loss of taste, overall body pain, nausea Discoloration of water supply, foul gas-like odor, and in some cases the water was
Oil and gas companies continuously deny any fault, however, for some residents whose
water was deemed undrinkable – they
were supplied with alternate water
source (contradiction which proves them guilty)
Fraccidents associated with the effects of the intermingling chemicals found in the fracking
mixture, and the local water supply
Select state EPAs investigated/tested the water supply to further prove the dangerous impact
of fracking on residents near the wells.
∙ Chemicals found in the water, previously deemed drinkable
∙ “Evidence of Fracking now being proved as having a negative effect on the water supply, new policies are now being debated on the local, state and national levels. “
∙ The Frack Act has been put in place in an attempt to eliminate the practice of hydraulic fracturing.
∙ Socio-Cultural Evolution = the historical alterations in culture due to new technologies & land-use patterns
o Four major levels of development: We also discuss several other topics like What is matlab data?
Hunting/Gathering, Pastoralism/ Horticulture, Agriculture, Industry
∙ Social-cultural History of World Population:
∙ Demography = statistical study of human populations with reference to size, density, distribution and statistics Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of the critical point?
o Contemporary demographic concern = “population explosion”, interrelation of population and economic development, effects of contraception, urban If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of hclo4 in chemistry?
congestion, and immigration
∙ Fertility Rates = incidence of child-bearing within the population
∙ Mortality Rates = incidence of death within the population 3
∙ Net population growth/Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) = The birth rate – Death rate = CBR – CDR If you want to learn more check out What refers to an organized range of content in one place?
o Expressed in %
o Annual rate of population growth without regard for migration
∙ Life Expectancy at birth = Average years an infant can expect to live under current mortality levels.
∙ Population Composition: If you want to learn more check out What is graded potential?
o Sex: gender
o Race: ethic
o Age cohorts
o Population pyramids
∙ Malthusian Theory = food supply and population are interdependent until the point of a catastrophic starvation
o “war, drought and famine has keep population in check”
o This theory has never came to pass
∙ J-shaped growth curve to exhibit human population
∙ Age pyramids are important descriptors of a population’s recent history and medium-term future. Population growth rates are highly dependent upon level of development.
∙ A decline in both death and birth rates is referred to as a complete demographic transition.
∙ Most current/future growth is taking place in developing countries