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GOVT 322

by: Sandra Notetaker
Sandra Notetaker
GPA 3.68
Intro to Global Affairs

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Intro to Global Affairs
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sandra Notetaker on Friday August 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to french 115 at George Mason University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Global Affairs in International Studies at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 08/28/15
Part I of the book and posted articles speci c topics in focus 1 What is the main assumption of F Fukuyama about the final form of human government fukuyama argues that the advent of Western liberal democracy may signal the endpoint of humanity39s sociocultural evolution and the nal form of human government What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War or the passing of a particular period of postwar history but the end of history as such that is the end point of mankind39s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the nal form of human governmentquot Fukuyama39s position contradicts that of Karl Marx who imagined that antagonistic history would end with communism displacing capitalism2 Fukuyama himself identi es on some level with Marx but identi es most strongly with the German philosopher Hegel by way of Alexandre Koj eve Koj eve argued that the progress of history must lead toward the establishment of a quotuniversal and homogenousquot statemost likely incorporating elements of liberal or social democracy but Kojeve39s emphasis on the necessarily quotpostpoliticalquot character of such a state and its citizens makes such comparisons inadequate and is irreducible to any mere quottriumphquot of capitalism 2 Key assumption of Mearsheimer s article 3 Mearsheimer s predictions and today s IR 4 What is the idea of The Clash of Civilizations p36 clashes between civilizations the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other speciesquot This thesis relates directly to Western relations with Islamic civilization in the Middle East 5 According to The Clash of Civilizations which new military alliance should be perceived as most dangerous to the West The union between China and Islamic world 6 Huntington offered six reasons why civilizations would clash Know them p3738 7 Provide several examples of today s torn countries Explain your selections p4951 tureky and mexico Russia the idea of torn countries and what impact they will have on the future in international relations Torn countries are countries that have tried to westernize themselves but have failed on the complete transformation because the core of the society is based on nonWestern values Countries such as Mexico Turkey and Russia who have left behind their traditions and tried to reidentify themselves and become a member of the powerful West are still struggling with parts of the conversion and where they will fall The author writes that there are three things that must happen for a country to convert First their political and economic elite have to be generally supportive of and enthusiastic about this move Second its public has to be willing to acquiesce in the rede nition Third the dominant groups in the recipient civilization have to be willing to embrace the convert 23 These three steps are all about shifting the identities of the state disregarding to an extent the state s history and also switching alliances For Mexico it is a shift away from pan Latin Americanism and for Turkey it is a shift away from pan Arabism This can cause problems for a state if the states surrounding it believe it to be a slap in the face that own of their own is leaving for the enemy For Mexico with the US directly to its north this should not be a big problem However it could be a major issue in Turkey and a reason their conversion might not be successful These states if they do convert to the Western side are indicator to what states in their region might do They also can be a reason for states in their region to completely disregard to West and begin a norm of antiWestemism that could spread to other cultures who do not want to be westemized Why does or does not economics trump politicsp 54my opinion Politics is about getting votes and staying in power Economics in one sense is about getting the most out of what we have 2 The rst insight of economics is that quotPeople respond to incentivesquot Politicians too are people and therefore they too would do what39s in their best interest But to also sympathise with them whats in 39publicinterest39 beyond the essentials like protection of property rights and defending the country is impossible to determine in a world where heterogenety is so widespread 3 The modern economy is such a complex organism that nobody can grasp it fully The citizens in the face of chronic depriviation are extremely docile and ignorant and desperate for aid Government gives them hope Politicians too make promises for giving what people their clients ask for Can a business tell their clients that they are wrong 4 Read quotPublic Choicequot for more insights Explain why globalization according to Krasner does not undermine state control Article No state could be taken for granted For technology had a great in uence over states Impact of international trade 10 Looking at the United States policies today why is the analogy with British 11 decline in the 1940s50s is misleading according to Joseph Nye The analogy with British decline is misleading The United Kingdom had naval supremacy and an empire on which the sun never set but by World War I the country ranked only fourth among the great powers in its share of military personnel fourth in GDP and third in military spending With the rise of nationalism protecting the empire became more of a burden than an asset For all the talk of an American empire the United States has more freedom of action than the United Kingdom did And whereas the United Kingdom faced rising neighbors Germany and Russia the United States benefits from being surrounded by two oceans and weaker neighbors What are the specific factors in US domestic politics mentioned by Nye that are negatively affecting its foreign policy the United States will lose its ability to in uence world events because of domestic battles over culture the collapse of its political institutions and economic stagnation This possibility cannot be ruled out but the trends are not as clear as the current gloomy mood suggests the United States overreacts to terrorist attacks by turning inward and thus cuts itself off from the strength it obtains from openness Because globalization will spread technological capabilities and information technology will allow more people to communicate US culture and the US economy will become less globally dominant than they were at the start of this century Yet it is unlikely that the United States will decay like ancient Rome or even that it will be surpassed by another state including China 12 What is absolute and relative decline of a country s power Give examples Declining is relative when we compare it to other countries Part 2 1 Lord of the Flies and its message in the Realist context lectures Like people states tend to gang up on one another They plunge into violence and lawlessness when they do not have or do not recognize an established authority Without an effective power to restore order the world turns to anarchy and chaos But if power is used judiciously and responsibly supporters of realism say the cruelty of unruly mobs will be avoided 2 Realism key principles lectures Know major postulates and key events that explain this IR theory Theoretical roots of Realism Realism Offensive and defensive lecture part 2 slide 37 5 Multipolarity bipolarity and unipolarity Unipolarity in international politics is a distribution of power in which one state exercises most of the cultural economic and military in uence Example Unipolar Order no states can challenge the United States 39gtw Bipolarity is a distribution of power in which two states have the majority of economic military and cultural in uence internationally or regionally Example The United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War 19471990 however the SinoSoviet split of circa 1960 led to the rise of China as a possible third superpower Bipolar Order the United States and the Soviet Union dominated The Cold War and the balance of power Machiavelli s two methods of fighting in politics 8 Three principles of tension war quarrel among peopleaccording to Hobbes Competition safety diffidence reputation and glory gain 90 9 T Hobbes and war of all against all lO Idealism in international relations IR llEH Carr views of economic might and political power The politicians he claimed overestimated the role of moral values and misunderstood the role of power in international relations 12 Compare Realism and Neorealism K Waltz Realism is a school of international relations that focuses on state power security and interestsThe emphasis on global power structure is a hallmark of neorealism also called structural realism He thinks the world would be biopolar if it was just US and Soviet Union 13 Who are those culprits according to Blainey 14 Can moral principles be applied according to Morgenthau to the actions of states and why Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe All nations are tempted and few have been able to resist the temptation for long to clothe their own particular aspirations and actions in the moral purposes of the universe To know that nations are subject to the moral law is one thing while to pretend to know with certainty what is good and evil in the relations among nations is quite another There is a world of difference between the belief that all nations stand under the judgment of God inscrutable to the human mind and the blasphemous conviction that God is always on one39s side and that what one wills oneself cannot fail to be willed by God also 15 Stephen Krasner s discussion of sovereignty Online 16 World federalism rejected by Morgenthau and Niebuhr online World Federalism the attempt to establish a unified structure of world governments governed by a single democratic authority was unrealistic EJ39PPPI 8 9 Part III of the book and posted articles specific topics in focus Liberalism Key principles lectures Liberalism Major arguments and key events affecting this View The New Thinking concept in international relations lectures Public opinion and foreign policy lectures Immanuel Kant put together six preliminary articles or conditions for perpetual peace among countries Describe them Which US president was the rst active promoter of the liberal internationalist View of international politics US presidents and their isolationism interventionism multilateralism and unilateralism lectures The League of Nations as an international organization The Democratic Peace Theory key arguments 10 Case in Point Exporting democracy Japan Germany Iraq and Afghanistan 11 Keohane associated Institutional Liberalism with legalization Explain this phenomenon Legalization is a property of institutions The rules of legalized institutions are precise and obligatory and they provide arrangements for third party adjudication 9 In some domains notably human rights and criminal responsibility there has been a remarkable increase in legalization over the past two decades In a legalized system third party adjudication provides a focal point for agreement reducing the likelihood of protracted bargaining induced con ict over relatively minor issues and reducing uncertainty about both the rules and their enforcement Substantively legalization has facilitated the pro gressive extension of rights and legal protection to oppressed persons and peoples Even in situations when formal legalization is not feasible an orientation toward legali zation can promote the rise of soft law which helps reduce uncertainty and facilitate rule implementation 12 Explain the meaning of legalism and moralism in international relations Give examples Legalism and moralism in the discourse of international relations Legalism and moralism are not properties of institutions but rather of the human mind Legalism is the belief that moral and political progress can be made through the extension of law Moralism is the belief that moral principles provide valuable if not necessarily sufficient guides to how political actors should behave and that actions by those in power can properly be judged on the basis of their conformity to general moral principles developed chie y to govern the actions of individuals 13 The project of constructing a liberal order according to Ikenberry went through several sages Which ones Woodrow Wilson Franklin Roosevelt39s 14 John Ikenberry argues about the future of the liberal world order Discuss his main conclusions As the hegemonic organization of the liberal international order slowly gives way more states will have authority and status But this will still be a world that the United States wants to inhabit A wider array of states will share the burdens of global economic and political governance and with its worldwide system of alliances the United States will remain at the center of the global system Rising states do not just grow more powerful on the global stage they grow more powerful within their regions and this creates its own set of worries and insecurities which is why states will continue to look to Washington for security and partnership In this new age of international order the United States will not be able to rule But it can still lead 15 Why is the China threat in ated because it is falling apart becasuse of nuclear warheads 16 Why do countries like China have to accept the established liberal international order according to Ikenberry because they are bene ting from its rules practices and institutions including the World Trade Organization WTO and the newly organized G20 Their economic success and growing in uence are tied to the liberal internationalist organization of world politics and they have deep interests in preserving that system


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