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ALBANY / OTHER / ABIO 130 / What do you call the production of somatic cells?

What do you call the production of somatic cells?

What do you call the production of somatic cells?

Description

School: SUNY Albany
Department: OTHER
Course: Gen Bio: Molecular & Cell Bio Lecture
Professor: Linda mayerhofer
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3
Description: Chapter 12 and important chapter 14 notes
Uploaded: 11/14/2017
6 Pages 28 Views 2 Unlocks
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Chapter 12 - Mitosis We also discuss several other topics like What is the immature form of insect called?

Mitosis = production of somatic cells

  • Daughter Cells identical to parent cell
  • Mitosis accompanied by cytokinesis - the division of the cytoplasm into 2 distinct  cells. When complete parent cell gives rise to daughter cell

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Cell Replication

  • DNA = encodes the cell’s genetic info
  • Chromosome - made of a Singal long DNA double helix wrapped around proteins called histones
  • Gene - section of DNA that encodes info to make RNA or a protein
  • Each of the double - stranded DNA Copies in a replicated chromosome is called a chromatid
  • Before mitosis, the 2 chromatids are joined, after mitosis the connects are removed except at the region called centromere
  • Chromatid copies that remain attached to their centromere = Sister chromatids
  • The M phase - process of separating chromosomes, then the rest of the time the cell is in interphase

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Interphase

  • Gap phases G1 & G2 allow the cell to grow large enough & synthesize enough organelles to ensure normal size & function
  • S phase = cell replicates its DNA

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G1 → Gap btwn M & S phase. Checks for cell size, DNA damage,  growth factors, nutrients (parent cell)

G2 → Prepares for M phase

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- G1 → 46 chromosomes

- G2 → replicated chromosomes form 2 sister chromatids

M phase Don't forget about the age old question of What is cytokinesis and when does it occur?

(5 different subphases)

  1. Prophase - Chromosomes condense into compact structures
  • Formation of mitotic spindle that forms a microtubule organizing center called centrisomes (animals w/ a pair of centrioles) It moves replicated chromosomes in early mitosis, pulls chromatids apart in late mitosis

Summary : Chromosomes condense & spindle forms.

  1. Prometaphase - After chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope breaks down. Removed of the envelope allows microtubules to attatch to chromosomes at kinetochores
  • Each sister chromosome has its own kinetochore assembeled at the centromere. The microtubules attatched to each kinetochore on each side of the chromosome = kinetochore  microtubules. Chromosomes push & pull until they reach the middle
  1. Metaphase - once all the chromosomes reached the middle of the spindle, it is in metaphase. The chromosomes are lined up btwn the 2 spindle poles called metaphase plate
  • The formation of mitotic spindle is complete, the motor proteins on kinetochore microtubules pull each chromosome at opposite ends making the chromosome in the middle of the cell.
  1. Anaphase - Centromeres split & sister chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles by spindle fibers
  • Replicated chromosomes are split into 2 identical  sets of unreplicated chromosomes.
  1. Telophase - The nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes & thy de - Condense

Cytokinesis

  • Typically occurs immediately after mitosis
  • During this process, the cytoplasm divides to form 2 daughter cells each with its own nucleus & organelles.

In plants : As vesicles are transported from golgi to the middle of the dividing cell, the vesicle fuse → cell plate

In animals / fungi : A ring of actin & myosin filaments contrach inside the cell membrane causing an inward pinch in a cleavage furrow.

Bacteria : Do not undergo cytokinesis but binary fission.

  1. DNA is copied & protein filaments attatch
  2. DNA copies are separated, rings of protein form
  3. Ring draws in membrane

MPF (mitosis - promoting factor)

  • present in the cytoplasm of M - phase cells & induces mitosis in all eukaryotes
  • MPF is composed of  2 distinct subunits : a protein kinase & cyclin
  • kinase = enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a target protein (regulatory proteins)
  • Cyclins = kinase only functional when bounded to. It increases during interphase & peaks in M phase. So when cyclin concentrations are high, more MPF is active
  • MPF turned off around anaphase

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