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NIU / Engineering / BIOS 208 / What is the difference between a chromosome and a sister chromatid?

What is the difference between a chromosome and a sister chromatid?

What is the difference between a chromosome and a sister chromatid?

Description

School: Northern Illinois University
Department: Engineering
Course: Fundamentals of Cell Biology
Professor: Ed draper
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology and Cell
Cost: 50
Name: BIOS208 Study Guide Exam 3
Description: These notes cover the key words to look for and study for the upcoming exam.
Uploaded: 11/15/2017
4 Pages 100 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 12 Cell CycleIf you want to learn more check out What is the relation between life events and health?

Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells

  • Unicellular organisms use cell division to reproduce
  • This cell division plays a role in the cell cycle

We also discuss several other topics like Describe the discovery of the hobbit people.
Don't forget about the age old question of Are organisms' traits related to environmental conditions?

Genome: genetic material (DNA) in a cell

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the mass of the planet jupiter?

Chromosomes:  cellular structure consisting of 1 DNA molecule associated protein molecules

Chromatin: DNA complex and proteins which make up Eukaryotic chromosomesDon't forget about the age old question of Name halogen atoms as substituents using the same rules for alkyl groups.

Gametes: the haploid reproductive cell (sperm and egg) they unite during sexual reproduction to make diploid (In) cells

Sister chromatids: two sister chromatids = 1 chromosome these are 2 copies of duplicated chromosomes attached by a protein (centromere)Don't forget about the age old question of Name three acceptable ways to take someone’s life in western culture.

Centromeres: the region on each sister chromatids are attached

Mitosis: the eukaryotic cell division of the nucleus

Cytokinesis: the division of the cytoplasm

Chapter 15, Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Sex - linked inheritance of eye color

  • Remember “sex - linkage” implies that a gene

The human X chromosome has about 2350 genes including many that are disease related

  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Albinism - deafness syndrome
  • Fragile - x syndrome
  • Color blindness
  • Hemophilia A (defect in proper blood clotting)

All these diseases can occur in women but much common in men

  • Very few genes on human Y chromosome
  • Most are male - specific, etc. sperm production

Sex - linked genes are on the X chromosomes

Barr Bodies

  • Permanent condensation of one X chromosome is female mammals produce
  • This chromosome is (mostly) inactive
  • The body is mosaic “clones of cells in which one x chromosome or the other inactivated

Sweat glands are mosaic in human females

Alteration in chromosome structure

  • Can lead to loss, gain, movement or inappropriate expression of genes

Reciprocal translocation (non - homologous crossing - over)

  • Chromosome 9 and chromosome 22

Nondisjunction

  • Nondisjunction is failure of homologs to separate in meiosis

Occurs during meiosis 1 and or meiosis 2

  • Can occur in male or females gametes (sperm and eggs) have too many (n + 1) or too few chromosome (n - 1)
  • Zygotes have to many (2n + 1 → trisomy) or too few (2n - 1 → monosomy) chromosome
  • Aneuploids wrong number of chromosomes

Down syndrome

  • Trisomy for chromosome 21 (2n + 1, 47 chromosome)

Usually non - disjunction in older mothers

Human 00 genesis = egg development

00 cytes (2n) undergo meiosis to produce egg (In)

Girls are born with all the 00 cytes they will have

Human sex chromosome aneuploids are usually viable (page 299, 307)

Some chromosomal system for sex determination (assume normal sets of autosomes)

Xx = female, xy = male

The SRY (sex - determining region of y)

Promotes male development

  • If SRY is absent (all females) or mutated, individual develop as a female (being female default)
  • SRY encodes a transcription factor, a protein which controls the expression of other genes (turns then on or off)

Maternal (cytoplasmic) inheritance

  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts contains DNA; genes
  • These organelles are (almost always) inherited only from the mother’s egg, which provide cytoplasm and organelles to the zygote

Humans get their mitochondria only from their mother

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